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Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage.

Xu F, Tang Z, Huang S, Chen L, Liang Y, Mai W, Zhong H, Fu R, Wu D - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions.The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries.The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Materials Science Institute, PCFM Lab and GDHPPC Lab, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

ABSTRACT
Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pore structures of HCNs.(a) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms of HCN-900-20H2R (red) and its PACP carbon precursor (blue); the inset shows the density functional theory pore size distribution of nanopores in the shell for HCN-900-20H2R. SBET of HCNs obtained at various carbonization conditions, including (b) carbonization temperatures, (c) carbonization times and (d) heating rates.
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f3: Pore structures of HCNs.(a) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms of HCN-900-20H2R (red) and its PACP carbon precursor (blue); the inset shows the density functional theory pore size distribution of nanopores in the shell for HCN-900-20H2R. SBET of HCNs obtained at various carbonization conditions, including (b) carbonization temperatures, (c) carbonization times and (d) heating rates.

Mentions: Nitrogen adsorption experiment was performed to examine the pore characteristics of HCNs (Fig. 3). The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm of HCN-900-20H2R exhibits characteristics of type I/IV according to the classification of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. A very high nitrogen uptake at low relative pressure demonstrates the existence of tremendous nanopores within the shell, whereas the hysteresis loop at high relative pressure indicates the presence of mesopores. For HCN-900-20H2R, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) is calculated to be as high as 3,022 m2 g−1, which mainly originates from numerous nanopores with a maximum peak at 2.5 nm in its carbon shell (the inset in Fig. 3a). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest SSA for HCNs reported so far (generally 200–1,800 m2 g−1; Supplementary Table 1). In sharp contrast, the carbon precursor PACP, only shows SBET of 33 m2 g−1 (Fig. 3a). This result demonstrates that the nanopores in the shell of HCNs are generated during carbonization treatment. This is because the resulting carbon shell are composed of turbostratic carbon sheets and clusters with a microcrystalline plane crystal size of 0.78 nm (Supplementary Figs 4 and 5, and Supplementary Table 2), and their disordered packing leads to free volume and porosity3536.


Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage.

Xu F, Tang Z, Huang S, Chen L, Liang Y, Mai W, Zhong H, Fu R, Wu D - Nat Commun (2015)

Pore structures of HCNs.(a) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms of HCN-900-20H2R (red) and its PACP carbon precursor (blue); the inset shows the density functional theory pore size distribution of nanopores in the shell for HCN-900-20H2R. SBET of HCNs obtained at various carbonization conditions, including (b) carbonization temperatures, (c) carbonization times and (d) heating rates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490369&req=5

f3: Pore structures of HCNs.(a) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms of HCN-900-20H2R (red) and its PACP carbon precursor (blue); the inset shows the density functional theory pore size distribution of nanopores in the shell for HCN-900-20H2R. SBET of HCNs obtained at various carbonization conditions, including (b) carbonization temperatures, (c) carbonization times and (d) heating rates.
Mentions: Nitrogen adsorption experiment was performed to examine the pore characteristics of HCNs (Fig. 3). The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm of HCN-900-20H2R exhibits characteristics of type I/IV according to the classification of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. A very high nitrogen uptake at low relative pressure demonstrates the existence of tremendous nanopores within the shell, whereas the hysteresis loop at high relative pressure indicates the presence of mesopores. For HCN-900-20H2R, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) is calculated to be as high as 3,022 m2 g−1, which mainly originates from numerous nanopores with a maximum peak at 2.5 nm in its carbon shell (the inset in Fig. 3a). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest SSA for HCNs reported so far (generally 200–1,800 m2 g−1; Supplementary Table 1). In sharp contrast, the carbon precursor PACP, only shows SBET of 33 m2 g−1 (Fig. 3a). This result demonstrates that the nanopores in the shell of HCNs are generated during carbonization treatment. This is because the resulting carbon shell are composed of turbostratic carbon sheets and clusters with a microcrystalline plane crystal size of 0.78 nm (Supplementary Figs 4 and 5, and Supplementary Table 2), and their disordered packing leads to free volume and porosity3536.

Bottom Line: Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions.The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries.The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Materials Science Institute, PCFM Lab and GDHPPC Lab, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

ABSTRACT
Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus