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Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage.

Xu F, Tang Z, Huang S, Chen L, Liang Y, Mai W, Zhong H, Fu R, Wu D - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions.The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries.The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Materials Science Institute, PCFM Lab and GDHPPC Lab, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

ABSTRACT
Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

No MeSH data available.


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Nanomorphologies of HCNs.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) PACP and (b) HCN-900-20H2R; transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of (d) PACP and (e) HCN-900-20H2R; (c) outer and (f) inner diameter distribution histograms of HCN-900-20H2R from analysis of SEM and TEM images, respectively. Scale bars, 500 nm (a,b), 100 nm (d) and 200 nm (e).
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f2: Nanomorphologies of HCNs.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) PACP and (b) HCN-900-20H2R; transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of (d) PACP and (e) HCN-900-20H2R; (c) outer and (f) inner diameter distribution histograms of HCN-900-20H2R from analysis of SEM and TEM images, respectively. Scale bars, 500 nm (a,b), 100 nm (d) and 200 nm (e).

Mentions: A facile template-free strategy, which includes large-scale fabrication of HCN precursors and subsequent thermal treatment for carbonization, was developed to prepare high-level HCNs. Briefly, the carbon precursors, hollow PACP nanospheres (Fig. 2a), were prepared using the strategy of confined interfacial copolymerization of aniline and pyrrole in the presence of Triton X-100 micelle30. Then, the hollow PACP nanospheres were directly carbonized in a furnace under protection of an inert gas to readily obtain the target HCNs. The key to realize highly porous structures is the utilization of the robust conjugated polymeric precursor that permits sufficient framework carbonizability and nanostructure inheritability, regardless of the rigorously applied carbonization conditions. The obtained HCNs exhibit a well-defined nanospherical morphology (Fig. 2b and Supplementary Fig. 1) with a narrow particle size distribution even after harsh thermal treatment (Fig. 2c). HCNs present smaller diameters than their precursor PACP (Fig. 2a), resulting from the framework shrinkage during carbonization. For example, HCN-900-20H2R obtained at 900 °C for 20 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min−1 has an outer diameter of 69 nm (Fig. 2c), which is obviously lower than that of PACP (106 nm; Fig. 2a and Supplementary Fig. 2). Such a diameter, to our knowledge, is the smallest one reported so far for HCNs with uniform morphology (normally 100–900 nm; Supplementary Table 1). HCN-900-20H2R shows a clear single hollow core of 26 nm in diameter (Fig. 2e,f), indicating that the shell thickness is 21.5 nm. Other HCNs (for example, HCN-900-10H5R), obtained at less rigorous carbonization conditions, certainly possess the uniform hollow nanosphereric morphology (Supplementary Fig. 2b–d). HCNs have good electrical conductivity. For example, HCN-900-10H5R exhibits a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1, which is larger than those of commercial activated carbons such as YP-50 (0.6 S cm−1) and SPC-01 (1.07 S cm−1), and many other nanocarbons 31323334. HCN-900-10H5R presents a tapping density of 0.25 g cm−3, a value comparable to those for commercial activated carbons such as SPC-01 (0.24 g cm−3) and YP-50 (0.35 g cm−3). In addition, HCNs are found to have nitrogen-containing functional groups. The nitrogen content for HCN-900-10H5R and HCN-800-3H2R was measured to be 2.55 and 7.92 wt%. The nitrogen-containing functional groups can be mainly assigned to pyridinic N (N-6) and quaternary N (N-Q) (Supplementary Fig. 3).


Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage.

Xu F, Tang Z, Huang S, Chen L, Liang Y, Mai W, Zhong H, Fu R, Wu D - Nat Commun (2015)

Nanomorphologies of HCNs.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) PACP and (b) HCN-900-20H2R; transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of (d) PACP and (e) HCN-900-20H2R; (c) outer and (f) inner diameter distribution histograms of HCN-900-20H2R from analysis of SEM and TEM images, respectively. Scale bars, 500 nm (a,b), 100 nm (d) and 200 nm (e).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490369&req=5

f2: Nanomorphologies of HCNs.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of (a) PACP and (b) HCN-900-20H2R; transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of (d) PACP and (e) HCN-900-20H2R; (c) outer and (f) inner diameter distribution histograms of HCN-900-20H2R from analysis of SEM and TEM images, respectively. Scale bars, 500 nm (a,b), 100 nm (d) and 200 nm (e).
Mentions: A facile template-free strategy, which includes large-scale fabrication of HCN precursors and subsequent thermal treatment for carbonization, was developed to prepare high-level HCNs. Briefly, the carbon precursors, hollow PACP nanospheres (Fig. 2a), were prepared using the strategy of confined interfacial copolymerization of aniline and pyrrole in the presence of Triton X-100 micelle30. Then, the hollow PACP nanospheres were directly carbonized in a furnace under protection of an inert gas to readily obtain the target HCNs. The key to realize highly porous structures is the utilization of the robust conjugated polymeric precursor that permits sufficient framework carbonizability and nanostructure inheritability, regardless of the rigorously applied carbonization conditions. The obtained HCNs exhibit a well-defined nanospherical morphology (Fig. 2b and Supplementary Fig. 1) with a narrow particle size distribution even after harsh thermal treatment (Fig. 2c). HCNs present smaller diameters than their precursor PACP (Fig. 2a), resulting from the framework shrinkage during carbonization. For example, HCN-900-20H2R obtained at 900 °C for 20 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min−1 has an outer diameter of 69 nm (Fig. 2c), which is obviously lower than that of PACP (106 nm; Fig. 2a and Supplementary Fig. 2). Such a diameter, to our knowledge, is the smallest one reported so far for HCNs with uniform morphology (normally 100–900 nm; Supplementary Table 1). HCN-900-20H2R shows a clear single hollow core of 26 nm in diameter (Fig. 2e,f), indicating that the shell thickness is 21.5 nm. Other HCNs (for example, HCN-900-10H5R), obtained at less rigorous carbonization conditions, certainly possess the uniform hollow nanosphereric morphology (Supplementary Fig. 2b–d). HCNs have good electrical conductivity. For example, HCN-900-10H5R exhibits a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1, which is larger than those of commercial activated carbons such as YP-50 (0.6 S cm−1) and SPC-01 (1.07 S cm−1), and many other nanocarbons 31323334. HCN-900-10H5R presents a tapping density of 0.25 g cm−3, a value comparable to those for commercial activated carbons such as SPC-01 (0.24 g cm−3) and YP-50 (0.35 g cm−3). In addition, HCNs are found to have nitrogen-containing functional groups. The nitrogen content for HCN-900-10H5R and HCN-800-3H2R was measured to be 2.55 and 7.92 wt%. The nitrogen-containing functional groups can be mainly assigned to pyridinic N (N-6) and quaternary N (N-Q) (Supplementary Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions.The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries.The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Materials Science Institute, PCFM Lab and GDHPPC Lab, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

ABSTRACT
Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m(2) g(-1) can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium-sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus