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Altered functional connectivity of the cingulate subregions in schizophrenia.

Wang D, Zhou Y, Zhuo C, Qin W, Zhu J, Liu H, Xu L, Yu C - Transl Psychiatry (2015)

Bottom Line: The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered.Results with and without global signal regression were reported.Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia patients have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cingulate cortex; however, it is unknown whether rsFCs of the cingulate subregions are differentially affected in this disorder. We aimed to clarify the issue by comparing rsFCs of each cingulate subregion between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. A total of 102 healthy controls and 94 schizophrenia patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The cingulate cortex was divided into nine subregions, including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), areas 24 and 32 of the pregenual ACC, areas 24 and 32 of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), posterior MCC (pMCC), dorsal (dPCC) and ventral (vPCC) posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered. Results with and without global signal regression were reported. Most cingulate subregions exhibited decreased rsFCs in schizophrenia after global signal regression (GSR). Without GSR, only increased rsFC was found in schizophrenia, which primarily restricted to the aMCC, PCC and RSC. Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR. These findings suggest that GSR can greatly affect between-group differences in rsFCs and the consistently increased rsFCs may challenge the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Resting-state functional connectivity maps of the left cingulate subregion in healthy controls with global signal regression. Only positive connectivity map of each cingulate subregion is depicted. Multiple comparisons are corrected by a false discovery rate (FDR) with a significant threshold of P<0.05. aMCC, anterior mid-cingulate cortex; dPCC, dorsal posterior cingulate cortex; L, left; pACC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex; pMCC, posterior mid-cingulate cortex; R, right; RSC, retrosplenial cortex; sACC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex; vPCC, ventral posterior cingulate cortex.
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fig2: Resting-state functional connectivity maps of the left cingulate subregion in healthy controls with global signal regression. Only positive connectivity map of each cingulate subregion is depicted. Multiple comparisons are corrected by a false discovery rate (FDR) with a significant threshold of P<0.05. aMCC, anterior mid-cingulate cortex; dPCC, dorsal posterior cingulate cortex; L, left; pACC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex; pMCC, posterior mid-cingulate cortex; R, right; RSC, retrosplenial cortex; sACC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex; vPCC, ventral posterior cingulate cortex.

Mentions: With GSR, the rsFC maps of the left cingulate subregions are shown in Figure 2 for healthy controls and in Figure 3 for schizophrenia patients; the rsFC maps of the right cingulate subregions are shown in Supplementary Figures 1 and 2. Both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients exhibited similar rsFC patterns for each cingulate subregion; however, the patient group had a smaller spatial extent in brain regions that exhibited significant rsFCs with the sACC, pACC, aMCC and pMCC.


Altered functional connectivity of the cingulate subregions in schizophrenia.

Wang D, Zhou Y, Zhuo C, Qin W, Zhu J, Liu H, Xu L, Yu C - Transl Psychiatry (2015)

Resting-state functional connectivity maps of the left cingulate subregion in healthy controls with global signal regression. Only positive connectivity map of each cingulate subregion is depicted. Multiple comparisons are corrected by a false discovery rate (FDR) with a significant threshold of P<0.05. aMCC, anterior mid-cingulate cortex; dPCC, dorsal posterior cingulate cortex; L, left; pACC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex; pMCC, posterior mid-cingulate cortex; R, right; RSC, retrosplenial cortex; sACC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex; vPCC, ventral posterior cingulate cortex.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490280&req=5

fig2: Resting-state functional connectivity maps of the left cingulate subregion in healthy controls with global signal regression. Only positive connectivity map of each cingulate subregion is depicted. Multiple comparisons are corrected by a false discovery rate (FDR) with a significant threshold of P<0.05. aMCC, anterior mid-cingulate cortex; dPCC, dorsal posterior cingulate cortex; L, left; pACC, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex; pMCC, posterior mid-cingulate cortex; R, right; RSC, retrosplenial cortex; sACC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex; vPCC, ventral posterior cingulate cortex.
Mentions: With GSR, the rsFC maps of the left cingulate subregions are shown in Figure 2 for healthy controls and in Figure 3 for schizophrenia patients; the rsFC maps of the right cingulate subregions are shown in Supplementary Figures 1 and 2. Both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients exhibited similar rsFC patterns for each cingulate subregion; however, the patient group had a smaller spatial extent in brain regions that exhibited significant rsFCs with the sACC, pACC, aMCC and pMCC.

Bottom Line: The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered.Results with and without global signal regression were reported.Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia patients have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cingulate cortex; however, it is unknown whether rsFCs of the cingulate subregions are differentially affected in this disorder. We aimed to clarify the issue by comparing rsFCs of each cingulate subregion between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. A total of 102 healthy controls and 94 schizophrenia patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The cingulate cortex was divided into nine subregions, including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), areas 24 and 32 of the pregenual ACC, areas 24 and 32 of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), posterior MCC (pMCC), dorsal (dPCC) and ventral (vPCC) posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered. Results with and without global signal regression were reported. Most cingulate subregions exhibited decreased rsFCs in schizophrenia after global signal regression (GSR). Without GSR, only increased rsFC was found in schizophrenia, which primarily restricted to the aMCC, PCC and RSC. Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR. These findings suggest that GSR can greatly affect between-group differences in rsFCs and the consistently increased rsFCs may challenge the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus