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Seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon in precipitation over urban and forest sites in central Poland.

Siudek P, Frankowski M, Siepak J - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc.In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05) were determined for rain, mixed rain-snow, and snow samples.It was found that rainwater TOC concentration measured in Poznań and Jeziory reflected a combination of local, regional, and distant sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89b Street, 61-614, Poznań, Poland, pat.s@amu.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Spatial and temporal variability of carbon species in rainwater (bulk deposition) was studied for the first time at two sites located in urban area of Poznań City and protected woodland area (Jeziory), in central Poland, between April and December 2013. The mean concentration of total carbon (TC) for the first site was 5.86 mg L(-1), whereas for the second, 5.21 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration accounted for, on average, 87 and 91 % of total carbon in precipitation at urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Significant changes in TC concentrations in rainwater were observed at both sites, indicating that atmospheric transformation, transport, and removal mechanisms of carbonaceous particles were affected by seasonal fluctuations in biogenic/anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions (i.e., precipitation height and type, atmospheric transport). During the warm season, the DOC concentration in rainwater was mostly influenced by mixed natural and anthropogenic sources. In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc. In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05) were determined for rain, mixed rain-snow, and snow samples. It was found that rainwater TOC concentration measured in Poznań and Jeziory reflected a combination of local, regional, and distant sources. Backward trajectory analysis showed that air masses advected from polluted regions in western Europe largely affect the DOC amount in rainwater, both at urban and non-urban sites. These data imply that carbonaceous compounds are of crucial importance in atmospheric chemistry and should be considered as an important parameter while considering wet deposition, reactions with different substances, especially over polluted environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Seventy-two hour back trajectories related to winter and summer conditions, calculated for rain episodes over the urban and forest sites in central Poland. Plots present very high DOC concentrations, including maxima in (ii) Poznań on 16th December (48.3 mg L−1), (iv) Jeziory (19.3 mg L−1), and two other cases (i, ii) when DOCrain > 10 mg L−1. Ground levels are marked as follows: 500 m (red), 1000 m (blue), and 1500 m (green)
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Fig5: Seventy-two hour back trajectories related to winter and summer conditions, calculated for rain episodes over the urban and forest sites in central Poland. Plots present very high DOC concentrations, including maxima in (ii) Poznań on 16th December (48.3 mg L−1), (iv) Jeziory (19.3 mg L−1), and two other cases (i, ii) when DOCrain > 10 mg L−1. Ground levels are marked as follows: 500 m (red), 1000 m (blue), and 1500 m (green)

Mentions: Recent studies on dissolved organic matter complexity in rainwater conducted by Mead et al. (2013) showed large variability in DOM composition while considering the air-mass backward trajectories. Results of DOC concentrations in rainwater collected at environmentally different sites in central Poland reflected the influence of local, regional, and distant sources. The examples of air-mass trajectories from HYSPLIT simulations are presented in Fig. 5 so as to give an insight into the relationship between emission sources (regional/distant) and DOC concentrations in precipitation.Fig. 5


Seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon in precipitation over urban and forest sites in central Poland.

Siudek P, Frankowski M, Siepak J - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2015)

Seventy-two hour back trajectories related to winter and summer conditions, calculated for rain episodes over the urban and forest sites in central Poland. Plots present very high DOC concentrations, including maxima in (ii) Poznań on 16th December (48.3 mg L−1), (iv) Jeziory (19.3 mg L−1), and two other cases (i, ii) when DOCrain > 10 mg L−1. Ground levels are marked as follows: 500 m (red), 1000 m (blue), and 1500 m (green)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490173&req=5

Fig5: Seventy-two hour back trajectories related to winter and summer conditions, calculated for rain episodes over the urban and forest sites in central Poland. Plots present very high DOC concentrations, including maxima in (ii) Poznań on 16th December (48.3 mg L−1), (iv) Jeziory (19.3 mg L−1), and two other cases (i, ii) when DOCrain > 10 mg L−1. Ground levels are marked as follows: 500 m (red), 1000 m (blue), and 1500 m (green)
Mentions: Recent studies on dissolved organic matter complexity in rainwater conducted by Mead et al. (2013) showed large variability in DOM composition while considering the air-mass backward trajectories. Results of DOC concentrations in rainwater collected at environmentally different sites in central Poland reflected the influence of local, regional, and distant sources. The examples of air-mass trajectories from HYSPLIT simulations are presented in Fig. 5 so as to give an insight into the relationship between emission sources (regional/distant) and DOC concentrations in precipitation.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc.In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05) were determined for rain, mixed rain-snow, and snow samples.It was found that rainwater TOC concentration measured in Poznań and Jeziory reflected a combination of local, regional, and distant sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89b Street, 61-614, Poznań, Poland, pat.s@amu.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Spatial and temporal variability of carbon species in rainwater (bulk deposition) was studied for the first time at two sites located in urban area of Poznań City and protected woodland area (Jeziory), in central Poland, between April and December 2013. The mean concentration of total carbon (TC) for the first site was 5.86 mg L(-1), whereas for the second, 5.21 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration accounted for, on average, 87 and 91 % of total carbon in precipitation at urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Significant changes in TC concentrations in rainwater were observed at both sites, indicating that atmospheric transformation, transport, and removal mechanisms of carbonaceous particles were affected by seasonal fluctuations in biogenic/anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions (i.e., precipitation height and type, atmospheric transport). During the warm season, the DOC concentration in rainwater was mostly influenced by mixed natural and anthropogenic sources. In contrast, during the cold season, the DOC concentration significantly increased mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities, i.e., intensive coal combustion, domestic wood burning, high-temperature processes, etc. In addition, during the winter measurements, significant differences in mean DOC concentration (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05) were determined for rain, mixed rain-snow, and snow samples. It was found that rainwater TOC concentration measured in Poznań and Jeziory reflected a combination of local, regional, and distant sources. Backward trajectory analysis showed that air masses advected from polluted regions in western Europe largely affect the DOC amount in rainwater, both at urban and non-urban sites. These data imply that carbonaceous compounds are of crucial importance in atmospheric chemistry and should be considered as an important parameter while considering wet deposition, reactions with different substances, especially over polluted environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus