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Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract.

Khan M, Al-Marri AH, Khan M, Shaik MR, Mohri N, Adil SF, Kuniyil M, Alkhathlan HZ, Al-Warthan A, Tremel W, Tahir MN, Siddiqui MR - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents.Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG).The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kmujeeb@ksu.edu.sa.

ABSTRACT
Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. (S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

No MeSH data available.


Digital images of the dispersions of CRG, SP-HRG-1 prepared with 10 mL of plant extract, SP-HRG-2 prepared with 20 mL of plant extract, and SP-HRG-3 prepared with 50 mL of plant extract and CRG (prepared with hydrazine hydrate)
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Fig9: Digital images of the dispersions of CRG, SP-HRG-1 prepared with 10 mL of plant extract, SP-HRG-2 prepared with 20 mL of plant extract, and SP-HRG-3 prepared with 50 mL of plant extract and CRG (prepared with hydrazine hydrate)

Mentions: The dispersions of these samples and CRG are prepared by sonicating 5 mg of each sample in 10 mL of DI water. Superior dispersions were obtained for the bioreduced SP-HRG as compared to CRG. Notably, the dispersion quality of SP-HRG samples improved with increasing the concentration of miswak root extract. For example, SP-HRG-3 demonstrated an excellent dispersion, which remained stable even after 2 weeks compared to relatively lower stability SP-HRG-1. However, after 2 weeks, the CRG suspension became completely unstable, whereas all the samples of SP-HRG demonstrated excellent dispersibility in water as shown in Fig. 9.Fig. 9


Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract.

Khan M, Al-Marri AH, Khan M, Shaik MR, Mohri N, Adil SF, Kuniyil M, Alkhathlan HZ, Al-Warthan A, Tremel W, Tahir MN, Siddiqui MR - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Digital images of the dispersions of CRG, SP-HRG-1 prepared with 10 mL of plant extract, SP-HRG-2 prepared with 20 mL of plant extract, and SP-HRG-3 prepared with 50 mL of plant extract and CRG (prepared with hydrazine hydrate)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489966&req=5

Fig9: Digital images of the dispersions of CRG, SP-HRG-1 prepared with 10 mL of plant extract, SP-HRG-2 prepared with 20 mL of plant extract, and SP-HRG-3 prepared with 50 mL of plant extract and CRG (prepared with hydrazine hydrate)
Mentions: The dispersions of these samples and CRG are prepared by sonicating 5 mg of each sample in 10 mL of DI water. Superior dispersions were obtained for the bioreduced SP-HRG as compared to CRG. Notably, the dispersion quality of SP-HRG samples improved with increasing the concentration of miswak root extract. For example, SP-HRG-3 demonstrated an excellent dispersion, which remained stable even after 2 weeks compared to relatively lower stability SP-HRG-1. However, after 2 weeks, the CRG suspension became completely unstable, whereas all the samples of SP-HRG demonstrated excellent dispersibility in water as shown in Fig. 9.Fig. 9

Bottom Line: Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents.Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG).The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kmujeeb@ksu.edu.sa.

ABSTRACT
Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. (S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

No MeSH data available.