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Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract.

Khan M, Al-Marri AH, Khan M, Shaik MR, Mohri N, Adil SF, Kuniyil M, Alkhathlan HZ, Al-Warthan A, Tremel W, Tahir MN, Siddiqui MR - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community.Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents.Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kmujeeb@ksu.edu.sa.

ABSTRACT
Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. (S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

No MeSH data available.


XPS spectra of graphene oxide (GRO): C1s (a) and O1s peak (b) and highly reduced graphene oxide with root extract (SP-HRG): C1s (c) and O1s peak (d)
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Fig7: XPS spectra of graphene oxide (GRO): C1s (a) and O1s peak (b) and highly reduced graphene oxide with root extract (SP-HRG): C1s (c) and O1s peak (d)

Mentions: Figure 7 shows a comparison of the XPS spectra of GRO and SP-HRG. The graphene sample (GRO) exhibits the typical peaks at 284.0, 286.2, 288.0, and 289.2 eV resulting from sp3 and sp2 C–C, C–O, C=O, and O–C=O groups, respectively (cf. Fig. 7a) [62]. Applying the same boundary conditions to the fit of the reduced sample (SP-HRG) results in a deviation at 285.9 and 287.7 eV originating from C–C and C–O groups of the root extract (cf. Fig. 7c). The additional shoulder in the O1s peak of SP-HRG (cf. Fig. 7d), which is missing in the GRO spectrum (cf. Fig. 7b), confirms the presence of root extract residues on the surface of the sample. Calculation of the atomic concentrations shows the amount of C–O and C=O groups on SP-HRG to be reduced significantly (35.74 to 7.11 % and 6.83 to 4.33 %, respectively), while maintaining the amount of C–C groups (56.24 to 57.83 %), representing the high degree of reduction on the surface of the sample. The peak at 289.2 eV increases after reduction (1.19 to 5.14 %), which points to an additional peak originating from C=O groups of the plant extract, which was not added due to the low intensity.Fig. 7


Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract.

Khan M, Al-Marri AH, Khan M, Shaik MR, Mohri N, Adil SF, Kuniyil M, Alkhathlan HZ, Al-Warthan A, Tremel W, Tahir MN, Siddiqui MR - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

XPS spectra of graphene oxide (GRO): C1s (a) and O1s peak (b) and highly reduced graphene oxide with root extract (SP-HRG): C1s (c) and O1s peak (d)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489966&req=5

Fig7: XPS spectra of graphene oxide (GRO): C1s (a) and O1s peak (b) and highly reduced graphene oxide with root extract (SP-HRG): C1s (c) and O1s peak (d)
Mentions: Figure 7 shows a comparison of the XPS spectra of GRO and SP-HRG. The graphene sample (GRO) exhibits the typical peaks at 284.0, 286.2, 288.0, and 289.2 eV resulting from sp3 and sp2 C–C, C–O, C=O, and O–C=O groups, respectively (cf. Fig. 7a) [62]. Applying the same boundary conditions to the fit of the reduced sample (SP-HRG) results in a deviation at 285.9 and 287.7 eV originating from C–C and C–O groups of the root extract (cf. Fig. 7c). The additional shoulder in the O1s peak of SP-HRG (cf. Fig. 7d), which is missing in the GRO spectrum (cf. Fig. 7b), confirms the presence of root extract residues on the surface of the sample. Calculation of the atomic concentrations shows the amount of C–O and C=O groups on SP-HRG to be reduced significantly (35.74 to 7.11 % and 6.83 to 4.33 %, respectively), while maintaining the amount of C–C groups (56.24 to 57.83 %), representing the high degree of reduction on the surface of the sample. The peak at 289.2 eV increases after reduction (1.19 to 5.14 %), which points to an additional peak originating from C=O groups of the plant extract, which was not added due to the low intensity.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community.Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents.Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kmujeeb@ksu.edu.sa.

ABSTRACT
Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. (S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

No MeSH data available.