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Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae.

Dorchin N, Astrin JJ, Bodner L, Harris KM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants.A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them.As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

No MeSH data available.


Larvae.a. O. anthemidis, head; b. O. anthemidis, spatula and associated papillae; c. O. anthemidis, terminal abdominal segment; d. O. hungaricus, terminal abdominal segment. e. Spatula and associated papillae, O. hungaricus; f. Spatula and associated papillae, O. longicollis; g. Spatula and associated papillae, O. millefolii; h. Variation of spatula shape in O. anthemidis; i. Variation of spatula shape in O. hungaricus. Lp–Lateral papillae, Sp–Sternal papilla, Vp–Ventral papilla. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
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pone.0130981.g009: Larvae.a. O. anthemidis, head; b. O. anthemidis, spatula and associated papillae; c. O. anthemidis, terminal abdominal segment; d. O. hungaricus, terminal abdominal segment. e. Spatula and associated papillae, O. hungaricus; f. Spatula and associated papillae, O. longicollis; g. Spatula and associated papillae, O. millefolii; h. Variation of spatula shape in O. anthemidis; i. Variation of spatula shape in O. hungaricus. Lp–Lateral papillae, Sp–Sternal papilla, Vp–Ventral papilla. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.

Mentions: Larva (third instar) (Fig 9A–9C). Light to dark yellowish-orange. Cylindrical-ovate. Integument covered by rounded verrucae. Antennae 1.5–2.0 times as long as wide. Cephalic apodeme considerably longer than head capsule (Fig 9A). Spatula (Fig 9A and 9H) long shafted and bidentate; shape of teeth and distance between them highly variable; when teeth farther apart, sometimes with minute additional projection between them. Sternal papillae without setae; pleural and dorsal papillae with long setae. On each side of spatula 3–4 asetose lateral papillae grouped together, and one asetose ventral papilla somewhat farther away (Fig 9B). Terminal abdominal segment with 2–3 setose papillae on each side (Fig 9C). All specimens obtained in the present study had 5 lateral papillae on each side; number of terminal papillae varied among individuals from different host plants: those from Chrysanthemum spp. and Anthemis rascheyana had 2 papillae on each side, those from A. tinctoria had 3, and those from A. bornmuelleri had either 2 or 3.


Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae.

Dorchin N, Astrin JJ, Bodner L, Harris KM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Larvae.a. O. anthemidis, head; b. O. anthemidis, spatula and associated papillae; c. O. anthemidis, terminal abdominal segment; d. O. hungaricus, terminal abdominal segment. e. Spatula and associated papillae, O. hungaricus; f. Spatula and associated papillae, O. longicollis; g. Spatula and associated papillae, O. millefolii; h. Variation of spatula shape in O. anthemidis; i. Variation of spatula shape in O. hungaricus. Lp–Lateral papillae, Sp–Sternal papilla, Vp–Ventral papilla. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489628&req=5

pone.0130981.g009: Larvae.a. O. anthemidis, head; b. O. anthemidis, spatula and associated papillae; c. O. anthemidis, terminal abdominal segment; d. O. hungaricus, terminal abdominal segment. e. Spatula and associated papillae, O. hungaricus; f. Spatula and associated papillae, O. longicollis; g. Spatula and associated papillae, O. millefolii; h. Variation of spatula shape in O. anthemidis; i. Variation of spatula shape in O. hungaricus. Lp–Lateral papillae, Sp–Sternal papilla, Vp–Ventral papilla. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
Mentions: Larva (third instar) (Fig 9A–9C). Light to dark yellowish-orange. Cylindrical-ovate. Integument covered by rounded verrucae. Antennae 1.5–2.0 times as long as wide. Cephalic apodeme considerably longer than head capsule (Fig 9A). Spatula (Fig 9A and 9H) long shafted and bidentate; shape of teeth and distance between them highly variable; when teeth farther apart, sometimes with minute additional projection between them. Sternal papillae without setae; pleural and dorsal papillae with long setae. On each side of spatula 3–4 asetose lateral papillae grouped together, and one asetose ventral papilla somewhat farther away (Fig 9B). Terminal abdominal segment with 2–3 setose papillae on each side (Fig 9C). All specimens obtained in the present study had 5 lateral papillae on each side; number of terminal papillae varied among individuals from different host plants: those from Chrysanthemum spp. and Anthemis rascheyana had 2 papillae on each side, those from A. tinctoria had 3, and those from A. bornmuelleri had either 2 or 3.

Bottom Line: Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants.A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them.As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

No MeSH data available.