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Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae.

Dorchin N, Astrin JJ, Bodner L, Harris KM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants.A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them.As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

No MeSH data available.


Female abdomen.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, lateral; b. O. anthemidis, ovipositor, lateral; c. O. anthemidis, 7th tergite; d. O. hungaricus, 7th tergite; e. O. longicollis, 7th tergite; f. O. millefolii, 7th tergite. Al–Apical lamella, Dlp–Dorsolateral plate, Lgs–Lateral group of setae on eighth segment. Scale bars = 0.1 mm, except for Fig 28 = 0.5 mm.
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pone.0130981.g007: Female abdomen.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, lateral; b. O. anthemidis, ovipositor, lateral; c. O. anthemidis, 7th tergite; d. O. hungaricus, 7th tergite; e. O. longicollis, 7th tergite; f. O. millefolii, 7th tergite. Al–Apical lamella, Dlp–Dorsolateral plate, Lgs–Lateral group of setae on eighth segment. Scale bars = 0.1 mm, except for Fig 28 = 0.5 mm.

Mentions: Female abdomen (Fig 7A and 7B): Dorsum with dense covering of black and white scales: each tergite with wide transverse stripe of black scales on most of surface, and a narrow strip of white scales along posterior margin. Pleuron and venter with white scales. Tergites 1–6 rectangular, with anterior pair of trichoid sensilla, posterior row of strong setae, and otherwise evenly covered by scales; tergite 7 much smaller than preceding, pigmentation evanescent laterally at midlength, with anterior pair of trichoid sensilla and posterior row of setae; tergite 8 divided longitudinally into two elongate sclerites (Fig 7C), each with wide anterior area with pointed dorsal extension and wide posterior area with pointed ventral extension connected by long, narrow band; each sclerite with trichoid sensillum on anterior part of narrow band, and a group of strong, posterior setae on widened posterior area. Eighth tergite 1.65–2.77 times as long as seventh tergite (n = 56). Sternites 2–7 rectangular, with pair of closely approximated trichoid sensilla, posterior row of setae, and several setae laterally and medially, more numerous on more posterior segments; sternite 8 not apparent. Ovipositor long, protrosible, 3.57–7.47 times as long as eighth tergite (n = 57), with pigmented lateral sclerite along segment 9 and lateral group of strong, arched setae originating from prominent sockets, pointed mostly ventrally. Cercal segment (Fig 7B) with dorsolateral sclerotized plate more strongly pigmented along posterior area than elsewhere, laterally with 10–20 short, strong and straight setae; posterior pigmented area with small dorsal projection and bearing 3–4 very long, hook-like, blunt setae. Apical lamella cylindrical, evenly setulose, with numerous strong setae mostly concentrated on dorsal and apical areas. Hypoproct setulose.


Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae.

Dorchin N, Astrin JJ, Bodner L, Harris KM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Female abdomen.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, lateral; b. O. anthemidis, ovipositor, lateral; c. O. anthemidis, 7th tergite; d. O. hungaricus, 7th tergite; e. O. longicollis, 7th tergite; f. O. millefolii, 7th tergite. Al–Apical lamella, Dlp–Dorsolateral plate, Lgs–Lateral group of setae on eighth segment. Scale bars = 0.1 mm, except for Fig 28 = 0.5 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489628&req=5

pone.0130981.g007: Female abdomen.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, lateral; b. O. anthemidis, ovipositor, lateral; c. O. anthemidis, 7th tergite; d. O. hungaricus, 7th tergite; e. O. longicollis, 7th tergite; f. O. millefolii, 7th tergite. Al–Apical lamella, Dlp–Dorsolateral plate, Lgs–Lateral group of setae on eighth segment. Scale bars = 0.1 mm, except for Fig 28 = 0.5 mm.
Mentions: Female abdomen (Fig 7A and 7B): Dorsum with dense covering of black and white scales: each tergite with wide transverse stripe of black scales on most of surface, and a narrow strip of white scales along posterior margin. Pleuron and venter with white scales. Tergites 1–6 rectangular, with anterior pair of trichoid sensilla, posterior row of strong setae, and otherwise evenly covered by scales; tergite 7 much smaller than preceding, pigmentation evanescent laterally at midlength, with anterior pair of trichoid sensilla and posterior row of setae; tergite 8 divided longitudinally into two elongate sclerites (Fig 7C), each with wide anterior area with pointed dorsal extension and wide posterior area with pointed ventral extension connected by long, narrow band; each sclerite with trichoid sensillum on anterior part of narrow band, and a group of strong, posterior setae on widened posterior area. Eighth tergite 1.65–2.77 times as long as seventh tergite (n = 56). Sternites 2–7 rectangular, with pair of closely approximated trichoid sensilla, posterior row of setae, and several setae laterally and medially, more numerous on more posterior segments; sternite 8 not apparent. Ovipositor long, protrosible, 3.57–7.47 times as long as eighth tergite (n = 57), with pigmented lateral sclerite along segment 9 and lateral group of strong, arched setae originating from prominent sockets, pointed mostly ventrally. Cercal segment (Fig 7B) with dorsolateral sclerotized plate more strongly pigmented along posterior area than elsewhere, laterally with 10–20 short, strong and straight setae; posterior pigmented area with small dorsal projection and bearing 3–4 very long, hook-like, blunt setae. Apical lamella cylindrical, evenly setulose, with numerous strong setae mostly concentrated on dorsal and apical areas. Hypoproct setulose.

Bottom Line: Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants.A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them.As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

No MeSH data available.