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Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae.

Dorchin N, Astrin JJ, Bodner L, Harris KM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants.A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them.As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

No MeSH data available.


Antennae.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, male apical flagellomeres, setae not shown; b. O. anthemidis, male flagellomeres, some setae shown; c. O. anthemidis, female flagellomeres; d. O. longicollis, male apical flagellomeres; e. O. longicollis, male (left), female (right); f. O. millefolii, male (left), female (center and right). Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
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pone.0130981.g005: Antennae.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, male apical flagellomeres, setae not shown; b. O. anthemidis, male flagellomeres, some setae shown; c. O. anthemidis, female flagellomeres; d. O. longicollis, male apical flagellomeres; e. O. longicollis, male (left), female (right); f. O. millefolii, male (left), female (center and right). Scale bars = 0.1 mm.

Mentions: Head (Fig 3A): Eye facets round; more spaciously arranged on vertex than laterally; eye bridge 3-4-facets long. Antenna (Fig 5A–5C): scape wide trapezoidal; pedicel globose; number of flagellomeres 11–12 in both sexes, rarely 10, number occasionally differs between antennae of same individual (n = 102♀, 104♂); flagellomeres globular to almost quadrate in female, more cylindrical in male (Fig 5B and 5C); first two flagellomeres usually partially to entirely fused, apical flagellomere often longer, evidently composed of 2–3 entirely or partially fused units; adjacent flagellomeres sometimes fused in mid antenna (Fig 5C); each flagellomere with two whorls of appressed circumfila and two rows of strong setae originating from prominent sockets, one row proximal to and one row between circumfila (Fig 5A); entire flagellomere surface other than neck covered by microtrichia. Palpus 4-segmented; segment 1 only slightly longer than wide, segments 3–4 about same length, 3 times longer than wide, with several strong setae and otherwise setulose. Frontoclypeal membrane with several strong setae on each side. Labrum about 4 times as long as width at base, parallel sided on basal two thirds, tapering from apical third towards setulose apex, with a few strong setae dorsally. Labella (Fig 6A) about 2.5 times as long as wide, somewhat concave medially, tapered apically, with several strong setae and densely setose along medio-apical surface.


Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae.

Dorchin N, Astrin JJ, Bodner L, Harris KM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Antennae.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, male apical flagellomeres, setae not shown; b. O. anthemidis, male flagellomeres, some setae shown; c. O. anthemidis, female flagellomeres; d. O. longicollis, male apical flagellomeres; e. O. longicollis, male (left), female (right); f. O. millefolii, male (left), female (center and right). Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489628&req=5

pone.0130981.g005: Antennae.a. Ozirhincus anthemidis, male apical flagellomeres, setae not shown; b. O. anthemidis, male flagellomeres, some setae shown; c. O. anthemidis, female flagellomeres; d. O. longicollis, male apical flagellomeres; e. O. longicollis, male (left), female (right); f. O. millefolii, male (left), female (center and right). Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
Mentions: Head (Fig 3A): Eye facets round; more spaciously arranged on vertex than laterally; eye bridge 3-4-facets long. Antenna (Fig 5A–5C): scape wide trapezoidal; pedicel globose; number of flagellomeres 11–12 in both sexes, rarely 10, number occasionally differs between antennae of same individual (n = 102♀, 104♂); flagellomeres globular to almost quadrate in female, more cylindrical in male (Fig 5B and 5C); first two flagellomeres usually partially to entirely fused, apical flagellomere often longer, evidently composed of 2–3 entirely or partially fused units; adjacent flagellomeres sometimes fused in mid antenna (Fig 5C); each flagellomere with two whorls of appressed circumfila and two rows of strong setae originating from prominent sockets, one row proximal to and one row between circumfila (Fig 5A); entire flagellomere surface other than neck covered by microtrichia. Palpus 4-segmented; segment 1 only slightly longer than wide, segments 3–4 about same length, 3 times longer than wide, with several strong setae and otherwise setulose. Frontoclypeal membrane with several strong setae on each side. Labrum about 4 times as long as width at base, parallel sided on basal two thirds, tapering from apical third towards setulose apex, with a few strong setae dorsally. Labella (Fig 6A) about 2.5 times as long as wide, somewhat concave medially, tapered apically, with several strong setae and densely setose along medio-apical surface.

Bottom Line: Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants.A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them.As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis.

No MeSH data available.