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A Positive Affective Neuroendocrinology Approach to Reward and Behavioral Dysregulation.

Welker KM, Gruber J, Mehta PH - Front Psychiatry (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation.We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework.Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder , Boulder, CO , USA.

ABSTRACT
Emerging lines of research suggest that both testosterone and maladaptive reward processing can modulate behavioral dysregulation. Yet, to date, no integrative account has been provided that systematically explains neuroendocrine function, dysregulation of reward, and behavioral dysregulation in a unified perspective. This is particularly important given specific neuroendocrine systems are potential mechanisms underlying and giving rise to reward-relevant behaviors. In this review, we propose a forward-thinking approach to study the mechanisms of reward and behavioral dysregulation from a positive affective neuroendocrinology (PANE) perspective. This approach holds that testosterone increases reward processing and motivation, which increase the likelihood of behavioral dysregulation. Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation. We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework. Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology.

No MeSH data available.


Testosterone’s effects on brain regions associated with reward dysregulation. PFC, prefrontal cortex; NAcc, nucleus accumbens; VTA, ventral tegmental area.
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Figure 1: Testosterone’s effects on brain regions associated with reward dysregulation. PFC, prefrontal cortex; NAcc, nucleus accumbens; VTA, ventral tegmental area.

Mentions: Dysregulation in the dopaminergic system has attracted considerable attention in researching behavioral dysregulation and related psychiatric disorders [see Ref. (59, 73), for a review]. For instance, the dopaminergic reward system and dopamine receptor polymorphisms have been linked to the crucial rewarding effects of substance abuse and addiction (74) and pathological gambling [e.g., Ref. (75–77)]. The dopamine system and receptors also modulate increased risky-decision making in humans [e.g., Ref. (78, 79)] and impulsive behavior in rodents [e.g., Ref. (80)]. Furthermore, neural theories of self-regulation (81, 82) hold that self-control is a function of the balance of activation and connectivity between the mesolimbic dopaminergic regions and regions of the PFC – a putative mechanism of self-control, inhibiting craving, and emotional control (74, 83–85). As we will discuss, testosterone modulates activity in these regions (see Figure 1).


A Positive Affective Neuroendocrinology Approach to Reward and Behavioral Dysregulation.

Welker KM, Gruber J, Mehta PH - Front Psychiatry (2015)

Testosterone’s effects on brain regions associated with reward dysregulation. PFC, prefrontal cortex; NAcc, nucleus accumbens; VTA, ventral tegmental area.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489099&req=5

Figure 1: Testosterone’s effects on brain regions associated with reward dysregulation. PFC, prefrontal cortex; NAcc, nucleus accumbens; VTA, ventral tegmental area.
Mentions: Dysregulation in the dopaminergic system has attracted considerable attention in researching behavioral dysregulation and related psychiatric disorders [see Ref. (59, 73), for a review]. For instance, the dopaminergic reward system and dopamine receptor polymorphisms have been linked to the crucial rewarding effects of substance abuse and addiction (74) and pathological gambling [e.g., Ref. (75–77)]. The dopamine system and receptors also modulate increased risky-decision making in humans [e.g., Ref. (78, 79)] and impulsive behavior in rodents [e.g., Ref. (80)]. Furthermore, neural theories of self-regulation (81, 82) hold that self-control is a function of the balance of activation and connectivity between the mesolimbic dopaminergic regions and regions of the PFC – a putative mechanism of self-control, inhibiting craving, and emotional control (74, 83–85). As we will discuss, testosterone modulates activity in these regions (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation.We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework.Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder , Boulder, CO , USA.

ABSTRACT
Emerging lines of research suggest that both testosterone and maladaptive reward processing can modulate behavioral dysregulation. Yet, to date, no integrative account has been provided that systematically explains neuroendocrine function, dysregulation of reward, and behavioral dysregulation in a unified perspective. This is particularly important given specific neuroendocrine systems are potential mechanisms underlying and giving rise to reward-relevant behaviors. In this review, we propose a forward-thinking approach to study the mechanisms of reward and behavioral dysregulation from a positive affective neuroendocrinology (PANE) perspective. This approach holds that testosterone increases reward processing and motivation, which increase the likelihood of behavioral dysregulation. Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation. We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework. Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology.

No MeSH data available.