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Parieto-occipital encephalomalacia in children; clinical and electrophysiological features of twenty-seven cases.

Karaoğlu P, Polat Aİ, Yiş U, Hız S - J Pediatr Neurosci (2015 Apr-Jun)

Bottom Line: Twenty-two (81.5%) had psychomotor retardation.Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills.Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Neurology, Dokuz Eylul University Medical School, 35340, Inciraltı, Izmir, Turkey.

ABSTRACT

Context: Brain injuries occurring at a particular time may cause damages in well-defined regions of brain. Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and hypoglycemia are some of the most common types of brain injuries. Neonatal hypoglycemia can cause abnormal myelination in parietal and occipital lobes resulting in parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. There is a small number of studies about clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. They might have important neurologic sequelae such as cortical visual loss, seizures, and psychomotor retardation.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the causes of parieto-occipital encephalomalacia and evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia.

Settings and design: We evaluated clinical features and EEGs of 27 children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia.

Statistical analysis used: Descriptive statistics were used.

Results: Hospitalization during the neonatal period was the most common cause (88.9%) of parieto-occipital brain injury. Eleven patients (40.7%) had a history of neonatal hypoglycemia. Twenty-three patients (85.2%) had epilepsy and nine of the epileptic patients (39%) had refractory seizures. Most of the patients had bilateral (50%) epileptic discharges originating from temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (56.2%). However, some patients had frontal sharp waves and some had continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep. Visual abnormalities were evident in 15 (55.6%) patients. Twenty-two (81.5%) had psychomotor retardation. Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills.

Conclusions: In our study, most of the patients with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia had an eventful perinatal history. Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Electroencephalography (EEG) of a patient with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. EEG during sleep shows bilateral epileptiform discharges on frontal lobes
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Figure 3: Electroencephalography (EEG) of a patient with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. EEG during sleep shows bilateral epileptiform discharges on frontal lobes

Mentions: Most of the patients had generalized tonic-clonic (8 patients, 29.6%), generalized tonic (5 patients, 15.8%) seizures, and infantile spasms (8 patients, 29.6%). Complex partial seizures and myoclonic seizures were also reported. EEG recordings were performed while awake in 4 (14.8%) patients and asleep in 23 (85.2%) patients. EEG on last examination was abnormal in 16 (%59.3) patients. Eight (50%) of them had bilateral, 4 (25%) had right sided, 3 (18.7) had left-sided and 1 (6.2%) had generalized epileptic discharges. Within patients with abnormal EEG, 9 (56.2%) had temporoparieto-occipital; 4 (25%) had parieto-occipital; 1 (6.2%) had parietal epileptic discharges [Figure 2]. Interestingly, one patient had bilateral frontal spike and wave discharges [Figure 3] and one of them had generalized epileptiform abnormality as continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep [Figure 4]. EEG abnormalities, seizure types and Denver II development screen test results are summarized in Table 2.


Parieto-occipital encephalomalacia in children; clinical and electrophysiological features of twenty-seven cases.

Karaoğlu P, Polat Aİ, Yiş U, Hız S - J Pediatr Neurosci (2015 Apr-Jun)

Electroencephalography (EEG) of a patient with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. EEG during sleep shows bilateral epileptiform discharges on frontal lobes
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489049&req=5

Figure 3: Electroencephalography (EEG) of a patient with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. EEG during sleep shows bilateral epileptiform discharges on frontal lobes
Mentions: Most of the patients had generalized tonic-clonic (8 patients, 29.6%), generalized tonic (5 patients, 15.8%) seizures, and infantile spasms (8 patients, 29.6%). Complex partial seizures and myoclonic seizures were also reported. EEG recordings were performed while awake in 4 (14.8%) patients and asleep in 23 (85.2%) patients. EEG on last examination was abnormal in 16 (%59.3) patients. Eight (50%) of them had bilateral, 4 (25%) had right sided, 3 (18.7) had left-sided and 1 (6.2%) had generalized epileptic discharges. Within patients with abnormal EEG, 9 (56.2%) had temporoparieto-occipital; 4 (25%) had parieto-occipital; 1 (6.2%) had parietal epileptic discharges [Figure 2]. Interestingly, one patient had bilateral frontal spike and wave discharges [Figure 3] and one of them had generalized epileptiform abnormality as continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep [Figure 4]. EEG abnormalities, seizure types and Denver II development screen test results are summarized in Table 2.

Bottom Line: Twenty-two (81.5%) had psychomotor retardation.Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills.Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Neurology, Dokuz Eylul University Medical School, 35340, Inciraltı, Izmir, Turkey.

ABSTRACT

Context: Brain injuries occurring at a particular time may cause damages in well-defined regions of brain. Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and hypoglycemia are some of the most common types of brain injuries. Neonatal hypoglycemia can cause abnormal myelination in parietal and occipital lobes resulting in parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. There is a small number of studies about clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. They might have important neurologic sequelae such as cortical visual loss, seizures, and psychomotor retardation.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the causes of parieto-occipital encephalomalacia and evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia.

Settings and design: We evaluated clinical features and EEGs of 27 children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia.

Statistical analysis used: Descriptive statistics were used.

Results: Hospitalization during the neonatal period was the most common cause (88.9%) of parieto-occipital brain injury. Eleven patients (40.7%) had a history of neonatal hypoglycemia. Twenty-three patients (85.2%) had epilepsy and nine of the epileptic patients (39%) had refractory seizures. Most of the patients had bilateral (50%) epileptic discharges originating from temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (56.2%). However, some patients had frontal sharp waves and some had continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep. Visual abnormalities were evident in 15 (55.6%) patients. Twenty-two (81.5%) had psychomotor retardation. Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills.

Conclusions: In our study, most of the patients with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia had an eventful perinatal history. Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus