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Cultural landscapes of the Araucaria Forests in the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Machado Mello AJ, Peroni N - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Bottom Line: The Araucaria Forest is associated with the Atlantic Forest domain and is a typical ecosystem of southern Brazil.During the course of the study two main perceptions of the ecotope caíva were found, there is no consensus to the exact definition; perception of caívas is considered a gradient.Eleven management practices within caívas were found, firewood collection, cattle grazing, trimming of the herbaceous layer, and erva-mate extraction were the most common.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Post-Graduate Program in Ecology (PPGECO) and Human Ecology and Ethnobotany Laboratory - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Center of Biological Sciences, Department of Ecology and Zoology, University Campus João David Ferreira Lima, Córrego Grande, Florianópolis, CEP 88040-900, Santa Catarina, Brasil. anna.j.mello@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Araucaria Forest is associated with the Atlantic Forest domain and is a typical ecosystem of southern Brazil. The expansion of Araucaria angustifolia had a human influence in southern Brazil, where historically hunter-gatherer communities used the pinhão, araucaria's seed, as a food source. In the north of the state of Santa Catarina, the Araucaria Forest is a mosaic composed of cultivation and pasture inserted between forest fragments, where pinhão and erva-mate are gathered; some local communities denominate these forest ecotopes as caívas. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand how human populations transform, manage and conserve landscapes using the case study of caívas from the Araucaria Forests of southern Brazil, as well as to evaluate the local ecological knowledge and how these contribute to conservation of the Araucaria Forest.

Methods: This study was conducted in the northern plateau of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil in local five communities. To assess ethnoecological perceptions the historical use and management of caívas, semi-structured interviews, checklist interviews and guided tours were conducted with family units.

Results: In total 28 family units participated in the study that had caívas on their properties. During the course of the study two main perceptions of the ecotope caíva were found, there is no consensus to the exact definition; perception of caívas is considered a gradient. In general caívas are considered to have the presence of cattle feeding on native pasture, with denser forest area that is managed, and the presence of specific species. Eleven management practices within caívas were found, firewood collection, cattle grazing, trimming of the herbaceous layer, and erva-mate extraction were the most common. Caívas are perceived and defined through the management practices and native plant resources. All participants stated that there have been many changes to the management practices within caívas and to the caíva itself.

Conclusions: These areas still remain today due to cultural tradition, use and management of plant resources. Through this cultural tradition of maintaining caívas the vegetation of the Araucaria Forest has been conserved associated to the use of the Araucaria Forests native plant resources.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a-f. Percentage of current and historical use citation for twenty native species considered priority within caívas. Analysis conducted from six communities of the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Citations in the following categories: a Timber; b Firewood; c Tool; d Medicinal; e Food; f Animal food
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Fig4: a-f. Percentage of current and historical use citation for twenty native species considered priority within caívas. Analysis conducted from six communities of the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Citations in the following categories: a Timber; b Firewood; c Tool; d Medicinal; e Food; f Animal food

Mentions: For many of the species the category of use changed temporally, specially in the past 30 years for the different use categories (Fig. 4a-f). There has been a general decrease in current use for timber species (Fig. 4a). For example, araucaria was used almost 80 % solely for timber historically, but the most cited use currently for this species is as food (the araucaria’s seed pinhão). In general citations for species used as timber resource decreased from historical use to current use, with the exception of cerninho, cuvatã and imbuia. For firewood (Fig. 4b) the same pattern can be found. Species that were used for firewood historically have changed. There are some exceptions, such as the araucaria that has a larger current use rather than historical use, since its fallen branches are used for firewood. Thus, farmers do not have cut down trees as done in the past. The other exceptions are the bracatinga, a species historically only used for firewood, guamirim, cuvatã and cerninho, which have replaced other species that were used historically for firewood. The use of species cited in the tool category has currently decreased. Most of the species used to make tools are cited currently as no longer used or have decreased in use over time (Fig. 4c). For medicinal plants, the current use and historical use has remained relatively the same, with the exception of cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell.) (Fig. 4d). Cedro was cited in the past as primarily (95 %) timber species but currently is only cited as a medicinal species (80 %). Food species have remained the same in terms of current use and historical use (Fig. 4e), with the exception of the araucaria, which has currently increased in citation, compared historically. Animal food has also generally remained the same between current and historical use citations (Fig. 4f). Some species have appeared currently as being used for animal food that did not appear historically for this purpose. Four out of the eleven species cited in this use category are from the Myrtaceae family (guamirim, pitanga, araça, and guavirova), which was stated by family units to provide fruit for livestock along with the native pastures within caívas.Fig. 4


Cultural landscapes of the Araucaria Forests in the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Machado Mello AJ, Peroni N - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

a-f. Percentage of current and historical use citation for twenty native species considered priority within caívas. Analysis conducted from six communities of the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Citations in the following categories: a Timber; b Firewood; c Tool; d Medicinal; e Food; f Animal food
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489030&req=5

Fig4: a-f. Percentage of current and historical use citation for twenty native species considered priority within caívas. Analysis conducted from six communities of the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Citations in the following categories: a Timber; b Firewood; c Tool; d Medicinal; e Food; f Animal food
Mentions: For many of the species the category of use changed temporally, specially in the past 30 years for the different use categories (Fig. 4a-f). There has been a general decrease in current use for timber species (Fig. 4a). For example, araucaria was used almost 80 % solely for timber historically, but the most cited use currently for this species is as food (the araucaria’s seed pinhão). In general citations for species used as timber resource decreased from historical use to current use, with the exception of cerninho, cuvatã and imbuia. For firewood (Fig. 4b) the same pattern can be found. Species that were used for firewood historically have changed. There are some exceptions, such as the araucaria that has a larger current use rather than historical use, since its fallen branches are used for firewood. Thus, farmers do not have cut down trees as done in the past. The other exceptions are the bracatinga, a species historically only used for firewood, guamirim, cuvatã and cerninho, which have replaced other species that were used historically for firewood. The use of species cited in the tool category has currently decreased. Most of the species used to make tools are cited currently as no longer used or have decreased in use over time (Fig. 4c). For medicinal plants, the current use and historical use has remained relatively the same, with the exception of cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell.) (Fig. 4d). Cedro was cited in the past as primarily (95 %) timber species but currently is only cited as a medicinal species (80 %). Food species have remained the same in terms of current use and historical use (Fig. 4e), with the exception of the araucaria, which has currently increased in citation, compared historically. Animal food has also generally remained the same between current and historical use citations (Fig. 4f). Some species have appeared currently as being used for animal food that did not appear historically for this purpose. Four out of the eleven species cited in this use category are from the Myrtaceae family (guamirim, pitanga, araça, and guavirova), which was stated by family units to provide fruit for livestock along with the native pastures within caívas.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The Araucaria Forest is associated with the Atlantic Forest domain and is a typical ecosystem of southern Brazil.During the course of the study two main perceptions of the ecotope caíva were found, there is no consensus to the exact definition; perception of caívas is considered a gradient.Eleven management practices within caívas were found, firewood collection, cattle grazing, trimming of the herbaceous layer, and erva-mate extraction were the most common.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Post-Graduate Program in Ecology (PPGECO) and Human Ecology and Ethnobotany Laboratory - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Center of Biological Sciences, Department of Ecology and Zoology, University Campus João David Ferreira Lima, Córrego Grande, Florianópolis, CEP 88040-900, Santa Catarina, Brasil. anna.j.mello@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Araucaria Forest is associated with the Atlantic Forest domain and is a typical ecosystem of southern Brazil. The expansion of Araucaria angustifolia had a human influence in southern Brazil, where historically hunter-gatherer communities used the pinhão, araucaria's seed, as a food source. In the north of the state of Santa Catarina, the Araucaria Forest is a mosaic composed of cultivation and pasture inserted between forest fragments, where pinhão and erva-mate are gathered; some local communities denominate these forest ecotopes as caívas. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand how human populations transform, manage and conserve landscapes using the case study of caívas from the Araucaria Forests of southern Brazil, as well as to evaluate the local ecological knowledge and how these contribute to conservation of the Araucaria Forest.

Methods: This study was conducted in the northern plateau of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil in local five communities. To assess ethnoecological perceptions the historical use and management of caívas, semi-structured interviews, checklist interviews and guided tours were conducted with family units.

Results: In total 28 family units participated in the study that had caívas on their properties. During the course of the study two main perceptions of the ecotope caíva were found, there is no consensus to the exact definition; perception of caívas is considered a gradient. In general caívas are considered to have the presence of cattle feeding on native pasture, with denser forest area that is managed, and the presence of specific species. Eleven management practices within caívas were found, firewood collection, cattle grazing, trimming of the herbaceous layer, and erva-mate extraction were the most common. Caívas are perceived and defined through the management practices and native plant resources. All participants stated that there have been many changes to the management practices within caívas and to the caíva itself.

Conclusions: These areas still remain today due to cultural tradition, use and management of plant resources. Through this cultural tradition of maintaining caívas the vegetation of the Araucaria Forest has been conserved associated to the use of the Araucaria Forests native plant resources.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus