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Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Preparation of Biocomposites Based on Poly(lactic acid) and Durian Peel Cellulose.

Penjumras P, Rahman RA, Talib RA, Abdan K - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated.The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%.Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia ; Department of Food Science and Technology, Maejo University, Phrae Campus, Phrae 54140, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Macroscopic image of (a) durian peel, (b) ground durian peel, and (c) cellulose.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Macroscopic image of (a) durian peel, (b) ground durian peel, and (c) cellulose.

Mentions: The durian peel was first sun-dried and was then ground as in Figures 1(a) and 1(b). Delignification and mercerization were used to extract cellulose according to Tawakkal et al. [30] with slight modifications. Firstly, delignification was used to produce holocellulose; 20 g of sample was rinsed with tap water to remove dust and was subsequently soaked in a 1,000 mL beaker with 640 mL of distilled water. The beaker was then transferred to a 70°C water bath. Next, 4 mL of CH3COOH and 8 g of NaClO2 were added to the beaker. Every subsequent hour for total of 5 h, the same amount of CH3COOH and NaClO2 was added in which lignin was completely separated from the sample. The delignification process was indicated by the color change of samples from brown to white. After that, the sample was left in the water bath overnight. Finally, holocellulose was then filtered, washed, and rinsed with tap water until the yellow color with an odor of chlorine dioxide was removed and the wash water was clear. Secondly, holocellulose was converted to cellulose by mercerization or alkali treatment at room temperature. The holocellulose was added with 80 mL of 17.5% w/v NaOH and the mixture was stirred with a glass rod. Another 40 mL of 17.5% w/v NaOH was added to the mixture every 5 min, three times. The mixture was allowed to sit for 30 min, making the total duration 45 min. Then, 240 mL of distilled water was added to the mixture and allowed to stand for 1 h before filtering. Next, 800 mL of 8.3% w/v NaOH was added to the cellulose for 5 min followed by rinsing with water. The alkaline cellulose was then neutralized by adding 120 mL of 10% v/v acetic acid. The cellulose was subjected to acid treatment for 5 min. Finally, the cellulose was filtered, washed, and rinsed with distilled water until the cellulose residue was free from acid and then dried overnight in a vacuum oven at 80°C. The cellulose obtained is shown as in Figure 1(c). The cellulose was kept in an air tight container at room temperature until analysis.


Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Preparation of Biocomposites Based on Poly(lactic acid) and Durian Peel Cellulose.

Penjumras P, Rahman RA, Talib RA, Abdan K - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Macroscopic image of (a) durian peel, (b) ground durian peel, and (c) cellulose.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4489010&req=5

fig1: Macroscopic image of (a) durian peel, (b) ground durian peel, and (c) cellulose.
Mentions: The durian peel was first sun-dried and was then ground as in Figures 1(a) and 1(b). Delignification and mercerization were used to extract cellulose according to Tawakkal et al. [30] with slight modifications. Firstly, delignification was used to produce holocellulose; 20 g of sample was rinsed with tap water to remove dust and was subsequently soaked in a 1,000 mL beaker with 640 mL of distilled water. The beaker was then transferred to a 70°C water bath. Next, 4 mL of CH3COOH and 8 g of NaClO2 were added to the beaker. Every subsequent hour for total of 5 h, the same amount of CH3COOH and NaClO2 was added in which lignin was completely separated from the sample. The delignification process was indicated by the color change of samples from brown to white. After that, the sample was left in the water bath overnight. Finally, holocellulose was then filtered, washed, and rinsed with tap water until the yellow color with an odor of chlorine dioxide was removed and the wash water was clear. Secondly, holocellulose was converted to cellulose by mercerization or alkali treatment at room temperature. The holocellulose was added with 80 mL of 17.5% w/v NaOH and the mixture was stirred with a glass rod. Another 40 mL of 17.5% w/v NaOH was added to the mixture every 5 min, three times. The mixture was allowed to sit for 30 min, making the total duration 45 min. Then, 240 mL of distilled water was added to the mixture and allowed to stand for 1 h before filtering. Next, 800 mL of 8.3% w/v NaOH was added to the cellulose for 5 min followed by rinsing with water. The alkaline cellulose was then neutralized by adding 120 mL of 10% v/v acetic acid. The cellulose was subjected to acid treatment for 5 min. Finally, the cellulose was filtered, washed, and rinsed with distilled water until the cellulose residue was free from acid and then dried overnight in a vacuum oven at 80°C. The cellulose obtained is shown as in Figure 1(c). The cellulose was kept in an air tight container at room temperature until analysis.

Bottom Line: The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated.The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%.Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia ; Department of Food Science and Technology, Maejo University, Phrae Campus, Phrae 54140, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus