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Phylogenetic relationships of some species of the family Echinostomatidae Odner, 1910 (Trematoda), inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences and karyological analysis.

Stanevičiūtė G, Stunžėnas V, Petkevičiūtė R - Comp Cytogenet (2015)

Bottom Line: The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies.These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902.According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Ecology of Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania.

ABSTRACT
The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies. The status of the subfamily Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 was changed in various classifications. Genetic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of four Echinostomatidae species - Echinochasmus sp., Echinochasmuscoaxatus Dietz, 1909, Stephanoprorapseudoechinata (Olsson, 1876) and Echinoparyphiummordwilkoi Skrjabin, 1915 were obtained to understand well enough the homogeneity of the Echinochasminae and phylogenetic relationships within the Echinostomatidae. Chromosome set and nuclear rDNA (ITS2 and 28S) sequences of parthenites of Echinochasmus sp. were studied. The karyotype of this species (2n=20, one pair of large bi-armed chromosomes and others are smaller-sized, mainly one-armed, chromosomes) differed from that previously described for two other representatives of the Echinochasminae, Echinochasmusbeleocephalus (von Linstow, 1893), 2n=14, and Episthmiumbursicola (Creplin, 1937), 2n=18. In phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 and 28S datasets, a well-supported subclade with Echinochasmus sp. and Stephanoprorapseudoechinata clustered with one well-supported clade together with Echinochasmusjaponicus Tanabe, 1926 (data only for 28S) and Echinochasmuscoaxatus. These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear separation of related species of Echinostomatoidea restricted to prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts, from other species of Echinostomatidae and Psilostomidae, developing in Lymnaeoidea snails as first intermediate hosts. According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts. Digeneans parasitizing prosobranch snails showed higher dynamic of karyotype evolution provided by different chromosomal rearrangements including Robertsonian translocations and pericentric inversions than more stable karyotype of digenean worms parasitizing lymnaeoid pulmonate snails.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Idiograms representing the haploid chromosome sets. Idiogram representing the haploid sets of eight species: aEchinochasmus sp. bEpisthmiumbursicolacEchinochasmusbeleocephalusdEchinopharyphiumaconiatumeIstmiophoramelisfHypoderaeumconoideumgSphaeridiotremaglobulushEchinostomarevolutumb, c - data of Baršienė and Kiselienė (1990) d, e, f, h data of Baršienė (1993) g data of Mutafova (2001).
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Figure 4: Idiograms representing the haploid chromosome sets. Idiogram representing the haploid sets of eight species: aEchinochasmus sp. bEpisthmiumbursicolacEchinochasmusbeleocephalusdEchinopharyphiumaconiatumeIstmiophoramelisfHypoderaeumconoideumgSphaeridiotremaglobulushEchinostomarevolutumb, c - data of Baršienė and Kiselienė (1990) d, e, f, h data of Baršienė (1993) g data of Mutafova (2001).

Mentions: The chromosome complement of Echinochasmus sp. with 2n=22 chromosomes gradually decreasing in size and with one-armed elements prevailing are characteristic for species of type-genus Echinostoma (Baršienė 1993; Mutafova 1994). The same chromosome morphology has been reported for species of the genus Echinopharyphium, Neoacanthoparyphium, Moliniella, Hypoderaeum, Isthmiophora (Echinostomatinae), but in these species the diploid chromosome number is lower, 2n = 20 (see Baršienė 1993 for review, Mutafova 1994). The chromosome number and morphology of Echinochasmus sp. resemble the karyotypic data of other representatives of Echinostomatinae (Baršienė 1993). Surprisingly, the other two known karyotypes of species of Echinochasminae are very different from that of Echinochasmus sp. Stanevičiūtė et al. 2008. The chromosome number of Echinochasmusbeleocephalus is 2n=14 and the karyotype consists of three pairs of large biarmed chromosomes and four pairs of smaller homologues. The chromosome set of Episthmiumbursicola contains 2n=18 and is conspicuous by the presence of a large first pair of subtelocentric elements and the rest of biarmed chromosomes (Baršienė and Kiselienė 1990). The karyotype of Psilostomidae (Echinostomatoidea) – Psilotrema sp., Psilotremasimillimum (Mühling, 1898) (2n=16), Psilotremaspiculigerum (Mühling, 1898) (2n=24) and Sphaeridiotremaglobulus (2n=14) also vary in their chromosome patterns (Baršienė 1993; Mutafova et al. 1998). Mutafova et al. (2001) studied Sphaeridiotremaglobulus and found a quite different diploid karyotype (2n=22 instead of 2n=14), with similar characteristic to those found in species of the genus Echinostoma 2n=22 and chromosomes of similar relative length; likewise, the centromeric position also varied possibly due to pericentric inversions. A possibility of mistake in the identifications of some species was mentioned by Mutafova et al. (2001). The ideograms of karyotypes of Echinochasmus sp. and some discussed species were constructed (Fig. 4) based on the mean values presented in Table 1 and previously published data (Baršienė and Kiselienė 1990, Baršienė 1993, Mutafova et al. 2001). A notable variation in chromosome number and morphology suggest the occurrence of multiple chromosome changes: Robertsonian changes, translocations and pericentric inversions. Chromosome rearrangements in lineage of Echinostomatinae show a karyotypic trend towards reduction in chromosome number, but the main karyotypic changes occurring in a case of speciation in this lineage are multiple pericentric inversions and fit into category of karyotypic orthoselection according to White (1973).


Phylogenetic relationships of some species of the family Echinostomatidae Odner, 1910 (Trematoda), inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences and karyological analysis.

Stanevičiūtė G, Stunžėnas V, Petkevičiūtė R - Comp Cytogenet (2015)

Idiograms representing the haploid chromosome sets. Idiogram representing the haploid sets of eight species: aEchinochasmus sp. bEpisthmiumbursicolacEchinochasmusbeleocephalusdEchinopharyphiumaconiatumeIstmiophoramelisfHypoderaeumconoideumgSphaeridiotremaglobulushEchinostomarevolutumb, c - data of Baršienė and Kiselienė (1990) d, e, f, h data of Baršienė (1993) g data of Mutafova (2001).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488972&req=5

Figure 4: Idiograms representing the haploid chromosome sets. Idiogram representing the haploid sets of eight species: aEchinochasmus sp. bEpisthmiumbursicolacEchinochasmusbeleocephalusdEchinopharyphiumaconiatumeIstmiophoramelisfHypoderaeumconoideumgSphaeridiotremaglobulushEchinostomarevolutumb, c - data of Baršienė and Kiselienė (1990) d, e, f, h data of Baršienė (1993) g data of Mutafova (2001).
Mentions: The chromosome complement of Echinochasmus sp. with 2n=22 chromosomes gradually decreasing in size and with one-armed elements prevailing are characteristic for species of type-genus Echinostoma (Baršienė 1993; Mutafova 1994). The same chromosome morphology has been reported for species of the genus Echinopharyphium, Neoacanthoparyphium, Moliniella, Hypoderaeum, Isthmiophora (Echinostomatinae), but in these species the diploid chromosome number is lower, 2n = 20 (see Baršienė 1993 for review, Mutafova 1994). The chromosome number and morphology of Echinochasmus sp. resemble the karyotypic data of other representatives of Echinostomatinae (Baršienė 1993). Surprisingly, the other two known karyotypes of species of Echinochasminae are very different from that of Echinochasmus sp. Stanevičiūtė et al. 2008. The chromosome number of Echinochasmusbeleocephalus is 2n=14 and the karyotype consists of three pairs of large biarmed chromosomes and four pairs of smaller homologues. The chromosome set of Episthmiumbursicola contains 2n=18 and is conspicuous by the presence of a large first pair of subtelocentric elements and the rest of biarmed chromosomes (Baršienė and Kiselienė 1990). The karyotype of Psilostomidae (Echinostomatoidea) – Psilotrema sp., Psilotremasimillimum (Mühling, 1898) (2n=16), Psilotremaspiculigerum (Mühling, 1898) (2n=24) and Sphaeridiotremaglobulus (2n=14) also vary in their chromosome patterns (Baršienė 1993; Mutafova et al. 1998). Mutafova et al. (2001) studied Sphaeridiotremaglobulus and found a quite different diploid karyotype (2n=22 instead of 2n=14), with similar characteristic to those found in species of the genus Echinostoma 2n=22 and chromosomes of similar relative length; likewise, the centromeric position also varied possibly due to pericentric inversions. A possibility of mistake in the identifications of some species was mentioned by Mutafova et al. (2001). The ideograms of karyotypes of Echinochasmus sp. and some discussed species were constructed (Fig. 4) based on the mean values presented in Table 1 and previously published data (Baršienė and Kiselienė 1990, Baršienė 1993, Mutafova et al. 2001). A notable variation in chromosome number and morphology suggest the occurrence of multiple chromosome changes: Robertsonian changes, translocations and pericentric inversions. Chromosome rearrangements in lineage of Echinostomatinae show a karyotypic trend towards reduction in chromosome number, but the main karyotypic changes occurring in a case of speciation in this lineage are multiple pericentric inversions and fit into category of karyotypic orthoselection according to White (1973).

Bottom Line: The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies.These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902.According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Ecology of Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania.

ABSTRACT
The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies. The status of the subfamily Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 was changed in various classifications. Genetic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of four Echinostomatidae species - Echinochasmus sp., Echinochasmuscoaxatus Dietz, 1909, Stephanoprorapseudoechinata (Olsson, 1876) and Echinoparyphiummordwilkoi Skrjabin, 1915 were obtained to understand well enough the homogeneity of the Echinochasminae and phylogenetic relationships within the Echinostomatidae. Chromosome set and nuclear rDNA (ITS2 and 28S) sequences of parthenites of Echinochasmus sp. were studied. The karyotype of this species (2n=20, one pair of large bi-armed chromosomes and others are smaller-sized, mainly one-armed, chromosomes) differed from that previously described for two other representatives of the Echinochasminae, Echinochasmusbeleocephalus (von Linstow, 1893), 2n=14, and Episthmiumbursicola (Creplin, 1937), 2n=18. In phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 and 28S datasets, a well-supported subclade with Echinochasmus sp. and Stephanoprorapseudoechinata clustered with one well-supported clade together with Echinochasmusjaponicus Tanabe, 1926 (data only for 28S) and Echinochasmuscoaxatus. These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear separation of related species of Echinostomatoidea restricted to prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts, from other species of Echinostomatidae and Psilostomidae, developing in Lymnaeoidea snails as first intermediate hosts. According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts. Digeneans parasitizing prosobranch snails showed higher dynamic of karyotype evolution provided by different chromosomal rearrangements including Robertsonian translocations and pericentric inversions than more stable karyotype of digenean worms parasitizing lymnaeoid pulmonate snails.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus