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Phylogenetic relationships of some species of the family Echinostomatidae Odner, 1910 (Trematoda), inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences and karyological analysis.

Stanevičiūtė G, Stunžėnas V, Petkevičiūtė R - Comp Cytogenet (2015)

Bottom Line: The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies.These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902.According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Ecology of Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania.

ABSTRACT
The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies. The status of the subfamily Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 was changed in various classifications. Genetic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of four Echinostomatidae species - Echinochasmus sp., Echinochasmuscoaxatus Dietz, 1909, Stephanoprorapseudoechinata (Olsson, 1876) and Echinoparyphiummordwilkoi Skrjabin, 1915 were obtained to understand well enough the homogeneity of the Echinochasminae and phylogenetic relationships within the Echinostomatidae. Chromosome set and nuclear rDNA (ITS2 and 28S) sequences of parthenites of Echinochasmus sp. were studied. The karyotype of this species (2n=20, one pair of large bi-armed chromosomes and others are smaller-sized, mainly one-armed, chromosomes) differed from that previously described for two other representatives of the Echinochasminae, Echinochasmusbeleocephalus (von Linstow, 1893), 2n=14, and Episthmiumbursicola (Creplin, 1937), 2n=18. In phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 and 28S datasets, a well-supported subclade with Echinochasmus sp. and Stephanoprorapseudoechinata clustered with one well-supported clade together with Echinochasmusjaponicus Tanabe, 1926 (data only for 28S) and Echinochasmuscoaxatus. These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear separation of related species of Echinostomatoidea restricted to prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts, from other species of Echinostomatidae and Psilostomidae, developing in Lymnaeoidea snails as first intermediate hosts. According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts. Digeneans parasitizing prosobranch snails showed higher dynamic of karyotype evolution provided by different chromosomal rearrangements including Robertsonian translocations and pericentric inversions than more stable karyotype of digenean worms parasitizing lymnaeoid pulmonate snails.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic ITS2 tree. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences (5.8S-ITS2-28S). Bootstrap percentages refer to maximum likelihood / neighbor-joing / maximum parsimony analysis. Only bootstrap values above 70% are shown. GenBank accession numbers are indicated before species names. Names of the target species are in bold; their hosts are presented in parentheses. Compressed clades: Fasciola (comprised sequences under GenBank accession numbers AM900370, EF534995, EF612486, JF496715), Echinostoma (AF067850, AF067852, AJ564383, AY168930, EPU58100, ETU58097, ELU58099, GQ463131, GQ463132), Hypoderaeum (AJ564385, GQ463134). Dotted rectangles 1 indicate digeneans whose life cycles include Lymnaeoidea as first intermediate host; dotted rectangle 2 indicates digeneans whose life cycles include prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts.
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Figure 2: Phylogenetic ITS2 tree. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences (5.8S-ITS2-28S). Bootstrap percentages refer to maximum likelihood / neighbor-joing / maximum parsimony analysis. Only bootstrap values above 70% are shown. GenBank accession numbers are indicated before species names. Names of the target species are in bold; their hosts are presented in parentheses. Compressed clades: Fasciola (comprised sequences under GenBank accession numbers AM900370, EF534995, EF612486, JF496715), Echinostoma (AF067850, AF067852, AJ564383, AY168930, EPU58100, ETU58097, ELU58099, GQ463131, GQ463132), Hypoderaeum (AJ564385, GQ463134). Dotted rectangles 1 indicate digeneans whose life cycles include Lymnaeoidea as first intermediate host; dotted rectangle 2 indicates digeneans whose life cycles include prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts.

Mentions: New sequences from two different regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained: the 5.8S-ITS2-28S and the 5’ end of the 28S gene, which does not overlap with the previous sequence. Complete nucleotide sequences are available in GenBank (Figs 2, 3). Pairwise comparisons of newly obtained sequences demonstrated that Echinochasmus sp. was closest to Stephanoprorapseudoechinata. These sequences of Echinochasmus sp. differed from sequences of Stephanoprorapseudoechinata by 12 out of 653 base pairs (1.84%) in the 5.8S-ITS2-28S region and by 15 out of 1070 base pairs (1.4%) in the sequenced portion of the 28S gene. All other differences among the new sequences were more significant, sequence divergence ranged from 13.59 to 23.15% in the 5.8S-ITS2-28S region and from 6.5 to 10.76% in the portion of the 28S gene. Blast searches (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi) performed on these sequences demonstrated the highest matches with sequences of digenean trematodes of superfamily Echinostomatoidea. The new sequences were aligned with sequences of representative species of this superfamily. The aligned dataset of the 5.8S-ITS2-28S rDNA region included 35 sequences of the Echinostomatoidea and 408 sites after trimming the ends to match the shortest aligned sequences. This alignment without outgroups showed a high sequence divergence of ITS2 rDNA region and comprises 228 variable (56%) and 175 (43%) parsimony informative sites. The aligned dataset of the partial 28S gene included 33 sequences of the Echinostomatoidea and was comprised of 990 sites after trimming the ends to match the shortest aligned sequences. This alignment without outgroups comprises 341 variable (34.44%) and 250 (25.25%) parsimony informative sites.


Phylogenetic relationships of some species of the family Echinostomatidae Odner, 1910 (Trematoda), inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences and karyological analysis.

Stanevičiūtė G, Stunžėnas V, Petkevičiūtė R - Comp Cytogenet (2015)

Phylogenetic ITS2 tree. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences (5.8S-ITS2-28S). Bootstrap percentages refer to maximum likelihood / neighbor-joing / maximum parsimony analysis. Only bootstrap values above 70% are shown. GenBank accession numbers are indicated before species names. Names of the target species are in bold; their hosts are presented in parentheses. Compressed clades: Fasciola (comprised sequences under GenBank accession numbers AM900370, EF534995, EF612486, JF496715), Echinostoma (AF067850, AF067852, AJ564383, AY168930, EPU58100, ETU58097, ELU58099, GQ463131, GQ463132), Hypoderaeum (AJ564385, GQ463134). Dotted rectangles 1 indicate digeneans whose life cycles include Lymnaeoidea as first intermediate host; dotted rectangle 2 indicates digeneans whose life cycles include prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488972&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic ITS2 tree. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences (5.8S-ITS2-28S). Bootstrap percentages refer to maximum likelihood / neighbor-joing / maximum parsimony analysis. Only bootstrap values above 70% are shown. GenBank accession numbers are indicated before species names. Names of the target species are in bold; their hosts are presented in parentheses. Compressed clades: Fasciola (comprised sequences under GenBank accession numbers AM900370, EF534995, EF612486, JF496715), Echinostoma (AF067850, AF067852, AJ564383, AY168930, EPU58100, ETU58097, ELU58099, GQ463131, GQ463132), Hypoderaeum (AJ564385, GQ463134). Dotted rectangles 1 indicate digeneans whose life cycles include Lymnaeoidea as first intermediate host; dotted rectangle 2 indicates digeneans whose life cycles include prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts.
Mentions: New sequences from two different regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained: the 5.8S-ITS2-28S and the 5’ end of the 28S gene, which does not overlap with the previous sequence. Complete nucleotide sequences are available in GenBank (Figs 2, 3). Pairwise comparisons of newly obtained sequences demonstrated that Echinochasmus sp. was closest to Stephanoprorapseudoechinata. These sequences of Echinochasmus sp. differed from sequences of Stephanoprorapseudoechinata by 12 out of 653 base pairs (1.84%) in the 5.8S-ITS2-28S region and by 15 out of 1070 base pairs (1.4%) in the sequenced portion of the 28S gene. All other differences among the new sequences were more significant, sequence divergence ranged from 13.59 to 23.15% in the 5.8S-ITS2-28S region and from 6.5 to 10.76% in the portion of the 28S gene. Blast searches (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi) performed on these sequences demonstrated the highest matches with sequences of digenean trematodes of superfamily Echinostomatoidea. The new sequences were aligned with sequences of representative species of this superfamily. The aligned dataset of the 5.8S-ITS2-28S rDNA region included 35 sequences of the Echinostomatoidea and 408 sites after trimming the ends to match the shortest aligned sequences. This alignment without outgroups showed a high sequence divergence of ITS2 rDNA region and comprises 228 variable (56%) and 175 (43%) parsimony informative sites. The aligned dataset of the partial 28S gene included 33 sequences of the Echinostomatoidea and was comprised of 990 sites after trimming the ends to match the shortest aligned sequences. This alignment without outgroups comprises 341 variable (34.44%) and 250 (25.25%) parsimony informative sites.

Bottom Line: The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies.These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902.According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Ecology of Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania.

ABSTRACT
The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies. The status of the subfamily Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 was changed in various classifications. Genetic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of four Echinostomatidae species - Echinochasmus sp., Echinochasmuscoaxatus Dietz, 1909, Stephanoprorapseudoechinata (Olsson, 1876) and Echinoparyphiummordwilkoi Skrjabin, 1915 were obtained to understand well enough the homogeneity of the Echinochasminae and phylogenetic relationships within the Echinostomatidae. Chromosome set and nuclear rDNA (ITS2 and 28S) sequences of parthenites of Echinochasmus sp. were studied. The karyotype of this species (2n=20, one pair of large bi-armed chromosomes and others are smaller-sized, mainly one-armed, chromosomes) differed from that previously described for two other representatives of the Echinochasminae, Echinochasmusbeleocephalus (von Linstow, 1893), 2n=14, and Episthmiumbursicola (Creplin, 1937), 2n=18. In phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 and 28S datasets, a well-supported subclade with Echinochasmus sp. and Stephanoprorapseudoechinata clustered with one well-supported clade together with Echinochasmusjaponicus Tanabe, 1926 (data only for 28S) and Echinochasmuscoaxatus. These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear separation of related species of Echinostomatoidea restricted to prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts, from other species of Echinostomatidae and Psilostomidae, developing in Lymnaeoidea snails as first intermediate hosts. According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts. Digeneans parasitizing prosobranch snails showed higher dynamic of karyotype evolution provided by different chromosomal rearrangements including Robertsonian translocations and pericentric inversions than more stable karyotype of digenean worms parasitizing lymnaeoid pulmonate snails.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus