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Incidence of cardiovascular events and gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving clopidogrel with and without proton pump inhibitors: an updated meta-analysis.

Cardoso RN, Benjo AM, DiNicolantonio JJ, Garcia DC, Macedo FY, El-Hayek G, Nadkarni GN, Gili S, Iannaccone M, Konstantinidis I, Reilly JP - Open Heart (2015)

Bottom Line: The use of PPIs in patients taking clopidogrel was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.The results of our meta-analysis suggest that PPIs are a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in patients taking clopidogrel, rather than a direct cause of worse outcomes.Furthermore, PPIs have the potential to decrease gastrointestinal bleeding in clopidogrel users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine , University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital , Miami, Florida , USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care after coronary stent placement but increases the bleeding risk. The effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on clopidogrel metabolism have been described, but the clinical significance is not yet definitive. We aimed to do an updated meta-analysis comparing outcomes in patients receiving clopidogrel with and without PPIs.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled observational studies in patients taking clopidogrel stratified by concomitant PPI use. Heterogeneity was examined with the Cochran Q test and I(2) statistics; p values inferior to 0.10 and I(2) >25% were considered significant for heterogeneity.

Results: We included 39 studies with a total of 214 851 patients, of whom 73 731 (34.3%) received the combination of clopidogrel and a PPI. In pooled analysis, all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and cerebrovascular accidents were more common in patients receiving both drugs. However, among 23 552 patients from eight RCTs and propensity-matched studies, there were no significant differences in mortality or ischaemic events between groups. The use of PPIs in patients taking clopidogrel was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that PPIs are a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in patients taking clopidogrel, rather than a direct cause of worse outcomes. The pharmacodynamic interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel most likely has no clinical significance. Furthermore, PPIs have the potential to decrease gastrointestinal bleeding in clopidogrel users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest plot of studies examining outcomes between patients taking proton pump inhibitor ( PPIs) with clopidogrel and those taking only clopidogrel: (A) overall mortality; (B) myocardial infarction.
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OPENHRT2015000248F2: Forest plot of studies examining outcomes between patients taking proton pump inhibitor ( PPIs) with clopidogrel and those taking only clopidogrel: (A) overall mortality; (B) myocardial infarction.

Mentions: All-cause mortality (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.61; p<0.001) and MI (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.65; p<0.001) were significantly increased in the group of patients receiving PPIs, as illustrated in figure 2. Stent thrombosis (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63; p=0.02), definite stent thrombosis (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.48; p=0.02; figure 3A), ACS (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.23 to 3.0; p=0.004; figure 3B) and CVA (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.97; p<0.001; figure 3C) were also more common in patients receiving both drugs. There was also a strong trend towards increased revascularisation (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.59; p=0.05; figure 3D) in the PPI-clopidogrel group. Conversely, the concomitant use of PPIs had a protective effect over the risk of GI bleeding (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.74; p=0.003; figure 4). A separate analysis restricted to cohort studies revealed similar results to the overall analysis.


Incidence of cardiovascular events and gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving clopidogrel with and without proton pump inhibitors: an updated meta-analysis.

Cardoso RN, Benjo AM, DiNicolantonio JJ, Garcia DC, Macedo FY, El-Hayek G, Nadkarni GN, Gili S, Iannaccone M, Konstantinidis I, Reilly JP - Open Heart (2015)

Forest plot of studies examining outcomes between patients taking proton pump inhibitor ( PPIs) with clopidogrel and those taking only clopidogrel: (A) overall mortality; (B) myocardial infarction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488889&req=5

OPENHRT2015000248F2: Forest plot of studies examining outcomes between patients taking proton pump inhibitor ( PPIs) with clopidogrel and those taking only clopidogrel: (A) overall mortality; (B) myocardial infarction.
Mentions: All-cause mortality (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.61; p<0.001) and MI (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.65; p<0.001) were significantly increased in the group of patients receiving PPIs, as illustrated in figure 2. Stent thrombosis (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63; p=0.02), definite stent thrombosis (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.48; p=0.02; figure 3A), ACS (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.23 to 3.0; p=0.004; figure 3B) and CVA (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.97; p<0.001; figure 3C) were also more common in patients receiving both drugs. There was also a strong trend towards increased revascularisation (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.59; p=0.05; figure 3D) in the PPI-clopidogrel group. Conversely, the concomitant use of PPIs had a protective effect over the risk of GI bleeding (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.74; p=0.003; figure 4). A separate analysis restricted to cohort studies revealed similar results to the overall analysis.

Bottom Line: The use of PPIs in patients taking clopidogrel was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.The results of our meta-analysis suggest that PPIs are a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in patients taking clopidogrel, rather than a direct cause of worse outcomes.Furthermore, PPIs have the potential to decrease gastrointestinal bleeding in clopidogrel users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine , University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital , Miami, Florida , USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care after coronary stent placement but increases the bleeding risk. The effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on clopidogrel metabolism have been described, but the clinical significance is not yet definitive. We aimed to do an updated meta-analysis comparing outcomes in patients receiving clopidogrel with and without PPIs.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled observational studies in patients taking clopidogrel stratified by concomitant PPI use. Heterogeneity was examined with the Cochran Q test and I(2) statistics; p values inferior to 0.10 and I(2) >25% were considered significant for heterogeneity.

Results: We included 39 studies with a total of 214 851 patients, of whom 73 731 (34.3%) received the combination of clopidogrel and a PPI. In pooled analysis, all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and cerebrovascular accidents were more common in patients receiving both drugs. However, among 23 552 patients from eight RCTs and propensity-matched studies, there were no significant differences in mortality or ischaemic events between groups. The use of PPIs in patients taking clopidogrel was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that PPIs are a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in patients taking clopidogrel, rather than a direct cause of worse outcomes. The pharmacodynamic interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel most likely has no clinical significance. Furthermore, PPIs have the potential to decrease gastrointestinal bleeding in clopidogrel users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus