Limits...
Thriving in the Cold: Glacial Expansion and Post-Glacial Contraction of a Temperate Terrestrial Salamander (Plethodon serratus).

Newman CE, Austin CC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic results show that P. serratus is comprised of multiple genetic lineages, and the four regions are not reciprocally monophyletic.The Appalachian salamanders form a clade sister to all other P. serratus.Niche and paleodistribution modeling results suggest that P. serratus expanded from the Appalachians during the cooler Last Glacial Maximum and has since been restricted to its current disjunct distribution by a warming climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The dynamic geologic history of the southeastern United States has played a major role in shaping the geographic distributions of amphibians in the region. In the phylogeographic literature, the predominant pattern of distribution shifts through time of temperate species is one of contraction during glacial maxima and persistence in refugia. However, the diverse biology and ecology of amphibian species suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" model may be inappropriate. Nearly 10% of amphibian species in the region have a current distribution comprised of multiple disjunct, restricted areas that resemble the shape of Pleistocene refugia identified for other temperate taxa in the literature. Here, we apply genetics and spatially explicit climate analyses to test the hypothesis that the disjunct regions of these species ranges are climatic refugia for species that were more broadly distributed during glacial maxima. We use the salamander Plethodon serratus as a model, as its range consists of four disjunct regions in the Southeast. Phylogenetic results show that P. serratus is comprised of multiple genetic lineages, and the four regions are not reciprocally monophyletic. The Appalachian salamanders form a clade sister to all other P. serratus. Niche and paleodistribution modeling results suggest that P. serratus expanded from the Appalachians during the cooler Last Glacial Maximum and has since been restricted to its current disjunct distribution by a warming climate. These data reject the universal applicability of the glacial contraction model to temperate taxa and reiterate the importance of considering the natural history of individual species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ecological niche models (second row) and paleodistribution models (mid-Holocene, LGM, LIG).Columns: the four regions of the P. serratus range. Red line in the Appalachians denotes the French Broad River. For LGM models, note the expanded coastlines due to lower sea levels. For Ozark LIG model, note the area of suitability covers the entire depicted region.
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pone.0130131.g005: Ecological niche models (second row) and paleodistribution models (mid-Holocene, LGM, LIG).Columns: the four regions of the P. serratus range. Red line in the Appalachians denotes the French Broad River. For LGM models, note the expanded coastlines due to lower sea levels. For Ozark LIG model, note the area of suitability covers the entire depicted region.

Mentions: The ENM generated for P. serratus roughly corresponded with the county based range map (IUCN et al., 2008), with overprediction beyond the current distribution in the Appalachian region (Fig 5). Niche similarity tests among the four regions showed all pairwise comparisons significantly more similar than expected based on chance. The LIG paleodistribution models for the Appalachians and Ouachitas both showed a very small area of suitable climate in the Appalachian highlands (Fig 5). The LIG model for Louisiana showed no areas of suitability, but the Ozark model found a vast area of suitability covering almost the entire eastern US and Canada (Fig 5). The LGM models for the Appalachians and Ouachitas showed a contiguous surface of suitable climate across the southeastern US, extending north to the Ouachitas but remaining south of the Ozarks (Fig 5). The LGM models for Louisiana and the Ozarks revealed no areas of suitable climate. Mid-Holocene models for the Appalachians and Ouachitas were much more restricted than the LGM models. Appalachian salamanders were restricted to the highlands, and Ouachita salamanders were restricted to an area encompassing parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. The mid-Holocene model for the Ozarks showed suitability in the Ozark Plateau and eastward into Illinois.


Thriving in the Cold: Glacial Expansion and Post-Glacial Contraction of a Temperate Terrestrial Salamander (Plethodon serratus).

Newman CE, Austin CC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Ecological niche models (second row) and paleodistribution models (mid-Holocene, LGM, LIG).Columns: the four regions of the P. serratus range. Red line in the Appalachians denotes the French Broad River. For LGM models, note the expanded coastlines due to lower sea levels. For Ozark LIG model, note the area of suitability covers the entire depicted region.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488858&req=5

pone.0130131.g005: Ecological niche models (second row) and paleodistribution models (mid-Holocene, LGM, LIG).Columns: the four regions of the P. serratus range. Red line in the Appalachians denotes the French Broad River. For LGM models, note the expanded coastlines due to lower sea levels. For Ozark LIG model, note the area of suitability covers the entire depicted region.
Mentions: The ENM generated for P. serratus roughly corresponded with the county based range map (IUCN et al., 2008), with overprediction beyond the current distribution in the Appalachian region (Fig 5). Niche similarity tests among the four regions showed all pairwise comparisons significantly more similar than expected based on chance. The LIG paleodistribution models for the Appalachians and Ouachitas both showed a very small area of suitable climate in the Appalachian highlands (Fig 5). The LIG model for Louisiana showed no areas of suitability, but the Ozark model found a vast area of suitability covering almost the entire eastern US and Canada (Fig 5). The LGM models for the Appalachians and Ouachitas showed a contiguous surface of suitable climate across the southeastern US, extending north to the Ouachitas but remaining south of the Ozarks (Fig 5). The LGM models for Louisiana and the Ozarks revealed no areas of suitable climate. Mid-Holocene models for the Appalachians and Ouachitas were much more restricted than the LGM models. Appalachian salamanders were restricted to the highlands, and Ouachita salamanders were restricted to an area encompassing parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. The mid-Holocene model for the Ozarks showed suitability in the Ozark Plateau and eastward into Illinois.

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic results show that P. serratus is comprised of multiple genetic lineages, and the four regions are not reciprocally monophyletic.The Appalachian salamanders form a clade sister to all other P. serratus.Niche and paleodistribution modeling results suggest that P. serratus expanded from the Appalachians during the cooler Last Glacial Maximum and has since been restricted to its current disjunct distribution by a warming climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The dynamic geologic history of the southeastern United States has played a major role in shaping the geographic distributions of amphibians in the region. In the phylogeographic literature, the predominant pattern of distribution shifts through time of temperate species is one of contraction during glacial maxima and persistence in refugia. However, the diverse biology and ecology of amphibian species suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" model may be inappropriate. Nearly 10% of amphibian species in the region have a current distribution comprised of multiple disjunct, restricted areas that resemble the shape of Pleistocene refugia identified for other temperate taxa in the literature. Here, we apply genetics and spatially explicit climate analyses to test the hypothesis that the disjunct regions of these species ranges are climatic refugia for species that were more broadly distributed during glacial maxima. We use the salamander Plethodon serratus as a model, as its range consists of four disjunct regions in the Southeast. Phylogenetic results show that P. serratus is comprised of multiple genetic lineages, and the four regions are not reciprocally monophyletic. The Appalachian salamanders form a clade sister to all other P. serratus. Niche and paleodistribution modeling results suggest that P. serratus expanded from the Appalachians during the cooler Last Glacial Maximum and has since been restricted to its current disjunct distribution by a warming climate. These data reject the universal applicability of the glacial contraction model to temperate taxa and reiterate the importance of considering the natural history of individual species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus