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Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

Dimmock JA, Guelfi KJ, West JS, Masih T, Jackson B - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes.However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity.There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. james.dimmock@uwa.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

No MeSH data available.


Hypothesized relationships between exercise, exercise motivation, and post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.
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nutrients-07-04804-f001: Hypothesized relationships between exercise, exercise motivation, and post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

Mentions: Energy intake following exercise is extremely variable across individuals and situations (see e.g., [1,2]). Conjecture remains as to the causes of this variability, but evidence is accumulating to indicate that psychological factors associated with both food consumption and exercise are influential in this regard (e.g., [3,4]). In this article, we argue that exercise motivation is likely to influence post-exercise snack consumption (we use a variety of phrases throughout this article in relation to post-exercise food consumption (e.g., “snack consumption”, “snacking”). In all instances though, our focus is on the consumption of hedonically pleasurable but unhealthy foods. We do not wish to offer examples of these foods because there is likely to be both intra- and inter-individual variability in the experience of pleasure during the consumption of specific foods.), and we draw on conceptual and empirical work on self-determination theory [5] to support our argument. First, we overview the nature of exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory, and we also highlight known outcomes of regulations discussed within this theory. Included within this discussion is commentary on two recent studies that support our premise that controlled, as opposed to autonomous, exercise motivation is linked to post-exercise snacking. Our attention then turns to the “why” question—Why is it that this relationship should exist? In addressing this issue, we argue that controlled exercise motivation affects cognitive (both impulsive and reflective) and physiological pathways that frequently precede the consumption of hedonically pleasurable foods. Figure 1 displays the nature of the relationships that are postulated in this article. We hope that our discussion stimulates research on post-exercise snacking, but we also hope to make a broader point that our understanding of health behavior is limited when we consider a given behavior in isolation. More specifically, we feel that a richer understanding of the health consequences of any behavior is obtained when considering how that behavior influences, and is influenced by, the multitude of other behaviors upon which our health is dependent. For now though, our focus is on the effect of exercise motivation on post-exercise snacking, and our discussion begins with a brief overview of motivation as it is described in self-determination theory.


Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

Dimmock JA, Guelfi KJ, West JS, Masih T, Jackson B - Nutrients (2015)

Hypothesized relationships between exercise, exercise motivation, and post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488815&req=5

nutrients-07-04804-f001: Hypothesized relationships between exercise, exercise motivation, and post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.
Mentions: Energy intake following exercise is extremely variable across individuals and situations (see e.g., [1,2]). Conjecture remains as to the causes of this variability, but evidence is accumulating to indicate that psychological factors associated with both food consumption and exercise are influential in this regard (e.g., [3,4]). In this article, we argue that exercise motivation is likely to influence post-exercise snack consumption (we use a variety of phrases throughout this article in relation to post-exercise food consumption (e.g., “snack consumption”, “snacking”). In all instances though, our focus is on the consumption of hedonically pleasurable but unhealthy foods. We do not wish to offer examples of these foods because there is likely to be both intra- and inter-individual variability in the experience of pleasure during the consumption of specific foods.), and we draw on conceptual and empirical work on self-determination theory [5] to support our argument. First, we overview the nature of exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory, and we also highlight known outcomes of regulations discussed within this theory. Included within this discussion is commentary on two recent studies that support our premise that controlled, as opposed to autonomous, exercise motivation is linked to post-exercise snacking. Our attention then turns to the “why” question—Why is it that this relationship should exist? In addressing this issue, we argue that controlled exercise motivation affects cognitive (both impulsive and reflective) and physiological pathways that frequently precede the consumption of hedonically pleasurable foods. Figure 1 displays the nature of the relationships that are postulated in this article. We hope that our discussion stimulates research on post-exercise snacking, but we also hope to make a broader point that our understanding of health behavior is limited when we consider a given behavior in isolation. More specifically, we feel that a richer understanding of the health consequences of any behavior is obtained when considering how that behavior influences, and is influenced by, the multitude of other behaviors upon which our health is dependent. For now though, our focus is on the effect of exercise motivation on post-exercise snacking, and our discussion begins with a brief overview of motivation as it is described in self-determination theory.

Bottom Line: It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes.However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity.There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. james.dimmock@uwa.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

No MeSH data available.