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Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

Foster M, Herulah UN, Prasad A, Petocz P, Samman S - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001).In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy.In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. meika.foster@otago.ac.nz.

ABSTRACT
Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flowchart detailing identification and selection of studies for inclusion in the review [9].
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nutrients-07-04512-f001: Flowchart detailing identification and selection of studies for inclusion in the review [9].

Mentions: A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus electronic databases from the beginning of coverage to September 2014 using the keyword search strategy (‘zinc’ OR ‘Zn’) AND (‘pregnant’ OR ‘pregnanc*’) AND (‘plant-based’ OR ‘vegetarian*’ OR ‘vegan*’). Journal articles were restricted to human investigations published in English. Reference lists of retrieved studies were inspected for additional relevant articles. The PRISMA flowchart [9] describing the studies identified from the search strategy is depicted in Figure 1.


Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

Foster M, Herulah UN, Prasad A, Petocz P, Samman S - Nutrients (2015)

Flowchart detailing identification and selection of studies for inclusion in the review [9].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488799&req=5

nutrients-07-04512-f001: Flowchart detailing identification and selection of studies for inclusion in the review [9].
Mentions: A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus electronic databases from the beginning of coverage to September 2014 using the keyword search strategy (‘zinc’ OR ‘Zn’) AND (‘pregnant’ OR ‘pregnanc*’) AND (‘plant-based’ OR ‘vegetarian*’ OR ‘vegan*’). Journal articles were restricted to human investigations published in English. Reference lists of retrieved studies were inspected for additional relevant articles. The PRISMA flowchart [9] describing the studies identified from the search strategy is depicted in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001).In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy.In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. meika.foster@otago.ac.nz.

ABSTRACT
Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus