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Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro.

Johnson LP, Walton GE, Psichas A, Frost GS, Gibson GR, Barraclough TG - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither.There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics.Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7PY, UK. L.johnson12@imperial.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes through time of the first three principal components summarising variation in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) log(concentrations). Black = control; green = inulin; pink = pectin. Solid = control antibiotics; dashed=gentamicin; dotted = ampicillin. The loadings and % variation for each principal component are shown in right-hand panels. Principal component 1 (PC1) represents production of all SCFAs except caproate. Principal component 2 (PC2) represents increasing concentration of SCFAs of longer chain length. Principal component 3 (PC3) represents proportionately increased concentration of BCFAs relative to acetate and caproate.
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nutrients-07-04480-f003: Changes through time of the first three principal components summarising variation in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) log(concentrations). Black = control; green = inulin; pink = pectin. Solid = control antibiotics; dashed=gentamicin; dotted = ampicillin. The loadings and % variation for each principal component are shown in right-hand panels. Principal component 1 (PC1) represents production of all SCFAs except caproate. Principal component 2 (PC2) represents increasing concentration of SCFAs of longer chain length. Principal component 3 (PC3) represents proportionately increased concentration of BCFAs relative to acetate and caproate.

Mentions: To identify independent component of responses, we ran a principal components analysis, then modeled the effects of fermentable fibre and antibiotic on the first 3 components, which together described 93.2% of the total variation (Figure 3). PC1 represented overall production of SCFAs, as it was positively correlated with all SCFAs (Figure 3). Supplementation with fermentable fibre increased PC1 (overall production of SCFAs) with no antibiotic treatment and ampicillin treatment, but decreased PC1 over time with gentamicin (antibiotic by diet by time interaction, F2,75.7 = 5.70, p = 0.005). Interestingly, PC2 represented a gradient from low to high carbon number: High values indicate higher concentrations of longer chain and lower concentrations of shorter chain SCFAs (Figure 3, mid right panel). Dietary supplements had little effect on PC2 (gradient from low to high carbon number) with no antibiotic treatment, whereas PC2 increased over time with gentamicin on the control diet, but decreased in both pectin and inulin treatments (antibiotic by diet by time interaction, F2,75 = 5.81, p = 0.0045). This indicates proportionately greater production of shorter chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) relative to longer chain fatty acids (valerate, isovalerate and caproate) caused by supplements combined with antibiotic treatments. Finally, principal component 3 (PC3) represented proportionately greater production of branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) isobutyrate and isovalerate relative to acetate and caproate. Carbohydrate supplementation reduced PC3 (BCFA production) irrespective of antibiotic treatment (F2,26.6 = 5.92, p = 0.022), indicating proportionately fewer BCFAs in supplemented vessels.


Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro.

Johnson LP, Walton GE, Psichas A, Frost GS, Gibson GR, Barraclough TG - Nutrients (2015)

Changes through time of the first three principal components summarising variation in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) log(concentrations). Black = control; green = inulin; pink = pectin. Solid = control antibiotics; dashed=gentamicin; dotted = ampicillin. The loadings and % variation for each principal component are shown in right-hand panels. Principal component 1 (PC1) represents production of all SCFAs except caproate. Principal component 2 (PC2) represents increasing concentration of SCFAs of longer chain length. Principal component 3 (PC3) represents proportionately increased concentration of BCFAs relative to acetate and caproate.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488797&req=5

nutrients-07-04480-f003: Changes through time of the first three principal components summarising variation in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) log(concentrations). Black = control; green = inulin; pink = pectin. Solid = control antibiotics; dashed=gentamicin; dotted = ampicillin. The loadings and % variation for each principal component are shown in right-hand panels. Principal component 1 (PC1) represents production of all SCFAs except caproate. Principal component 2 (PC2) represents increasing concentration of SCFAs of longer chain length. Principal component 3 (PC3) represents proportionately increased concentration of BCFAs relative to acetate and caproate.
Mentions: To identify independent component of responses, we ran a principal components analysis, then modeled the effects of fermentable fibre and antibiotic on the first 3 components, which together described 93.2% of the total variation (Figure 3). PC1 represented overall production of SCFAs, as it was positively correlated with all SCFAs (Figure 3). Supplementation with fermentable fibre increased PC1 (overall production of SCFAs) with no antibiotic treatment and ampicillin treatment, but decreased PC1 over time with gentamicin (antibiotic by diet by time interaction, F2,75.7 = 5.70, p = 0.005). Interestingly, PC2 represented a gradient from low to high carbon number: High values indicate higher concentrations of longer chain and lower concentrations of shorter chain SCFAs (Figure 3, mid right panel). Dietary supplements had little effect on PC2 (gradient from low to high carbon number) with no antibiotic treatment, whereas PC2 increased over time with gentamicin on the control diet, but decreased in both pectin and inulin treatments (antibiotic by diet by time interaction, F2,75 = 5.81, p = 0.0045). This indicates proportionately greater production of shorter chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) relative to longer chain fatty acids (valerate, isovalerate and caproate) caused by supplements combined with antibiotic treatments. Finally, principal component 3 (PC3) represented proportionately greater production of branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) isobutyrate and isovalerate relative to acetate and caproate. Carbohydrate supplementation reduced PC3 (BCFA production) irrespective of antibiotic treatment (F2,26.6 = 5.92, p = 0.022), indicating proportionately fewer BCFAs in supplemented vessels.

Bottom Line: Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither.There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics.Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7PY, UK. L.johnson12@imperial.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus