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Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D.

Greiller CL, Martineau AR - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses.Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6.More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK. c.l.greiller@qmul.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be independently associated with increased risk of viral acute respiratory infection (ARI) in a number of observational studies, and meta-analysis of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of ARI has demonstrated protective effects. Several cellular studies have investigated the effects of vitamin D metabolites on immune responses to respiratory viruses, but syntheses of these reports are lacking.

Scope: In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses.

Key findings: Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6.

Future research: More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The immunomodulatory actions of 1,25(OH)2D. 1,25(OH)2D has diverse and extensive effects on the immune compartment. The innate immune response is affected, with monocytes producing more LL-37 and β-defensin, with increased NOD2 expression and autophagy, while also producing diminished amounts of inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Differentiation into macrophages is increased, with macrophages having an increased capacity for phagocytosis and chemotaxis. However, their APC and T-cell stimulatory capacity is decreased. Monocyte and macrophage production of ROS and iNOS is able to both be induced and inhibited, thus regulating their balance. Differentiation into DCs is inhibited, with DCs expressing decreased levels of maturation surface markers. DC production of IL-12 and IL-23 is decreased, while mannose receptor expression and production of IL-10 and CCL22 are increased. When these tolerogenic DCs interact with T-cells, development of Tregs and Th2 cells is increased, with increased production of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-5. The development of Th1 and Th17 cells is inhibited, with decreased production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and attenuation of macrophage activation. B-cells are also affected by 1,25(OH)2D, demonstrating decreased immunoglobulin production, proliferation and differentiation, but increased apoptosis.
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nutrients-07-04240-f003: The immunomodulatory actions of 1,25(OH)2D. 1,25(OH)2D has diverse and extensive effects on the immune compartment. The innate immune response is affected, with monocytes producing more LL-37 and β-defensin, with increased NOD2 expression and autophagy, while also producing diminished amounts of inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Differentiation into macrophages is increased, with macrophages having an increased capacity for phagocytosis and chemotaxis. However, their APC and T-cell stimulatory capacity is decreased. Monocyte and macrophage production of ROS and iNOS is able to both be induced and inhibited, thus regulating their balance. Differentiation into DCs is inhibited, with DCs expressing decreased levels of maturation surface markers. DC production of IL-12 and IL-23 is decreased, while mannose receptor expression and production of IL-10 and CCL22 are increased. When these tolerogenic DCs interact with T-cells, development of Tregs and Th2 cells is increased, with increased production of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-5. The development of Th1 and Th17 cells is inhibited, with decreased production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and attenuation of macrophage activation. B-cells are also affected by 1,25(OH)2D, demonstrating decreased immunoglobulin production, proliferation and differentiation, but increased apoptosis.

Mentions: The main immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D are summarised in Figure 3.


Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D.

Greiller CL, Martineau AR - Nutrients (2015)

The immunomodulatory actions of 1,25(OH)2D. 1,25(OH)2D has diverse and extensive effects on the immune compartment. The innate immune response is affected, with monocytes producing more LL-37 and β-defensin, with increased NOD2 expression and autophagy, while also producing diminished amounts of inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Differentiation into macrophages is increased, with macrophages having an increased capacity for phagocytosis and chemotaxis. However, their APC and T-cell stimulatory capacity is decreased. Monocyte and macrophage production of ROS and iNOS is able to both be induced and inhibited, thus regulating their balance. Differentiation into DCs is inhibited, with DCs expressing decreased levels of maturation surface markers. DC production of IL-12 and IL-23 is decreased, while mannose receptor expression and production of IL-10 and CCL22 are increased. When these tolerogenic DCs interact with T-cells, development of Tregs and Th2 cells is increased, with increased production of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-5. The development of Th1 and Th17 cells is inhibited, with decreased production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and attenuation of macrophage activation. B-cells are also affected by 1,25(OH)2D, demonstrating decreased immunoglobulin production, proliferation and differentiation, but increased apoptosis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488782&req=5

nutrients-07-04240-f003: The immunomodulatory actions of 1,25(OH)2D. 1,25(OH)2D has diverse and extensive effects on the immune compartment. The innate immune response is affected, with monocytes producing more LL-37 and β-defensin, with increased NOD2 expression and autophagy, while also producing diminished amounts of inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Differentiation into macrophages is increased, with macrophages having an increased capacity for phagocytosis and chemotaxis. However, their APC and T-cell stimulatory capacity is decreased. Monocyte and macrophage production of ROS and iNOS is able to both be induced and inhibited, thus regulating their balance. Differentiation into DCs is inhibited, with DCs expressing decreased levels of maturation surface markers. DC production of IL-12 and IL-23 is decreased, while mannose receptor expression and production of IL-10 and CCL22 are increased. When these tolerogenic DCs interact with T-cells, development of Tregs and Th2 cells is increased, with increased production of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-5. The development of Th1 and Th17 cells is inhibited, with decreased production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and attenuation of macrophage activation. B-cells are also affected by 1,25(OH)2D, demonstrating decreased immunoglobulin production, proliferation and differentiation, but increased apoptosis.
Mentions: The main immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D are summarised in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses.Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6.More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK. c.l.greiller@qmul.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be independently associated with increased risk of viral acute respiratory infection (ARI) in a number of observational studies, and meta-analysis of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of ARI has demonstrated protective effects. Several cellular studies have investigated the effects of vitamin D metabolites on immune responses to respiratory viruses, but syntheses of these reports are lacking.

Scope: In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses.

Key findings: Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6.

Future research: More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus