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Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

Daughenbaugh KF, Martin M, Brutscher LM, Cavigli I, Garcia E, Lavin M, Flenniken ML - Viruses (2015)

Bottom Line: Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7.We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination.Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. kdaughenbaugh@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Lake Sinai virus phylogenetic relationship inferred from RdRp amino acid sequences. Majority rule Bayesian consensus tree of Lake Sinai viruses derived from Bayesian analysis of an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid alignment implemented in MrBayes v3.1.2 using the WAG amino acid substitution model (Supplementary Figure S6) [39]. Numbers on branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities (0–1). To improve figure clarity only posterior probability values that were less than 1 are shown on the full tree and branch line thickness was used to indicate posterior probabilities (0.5–1) in the LSV inset; the scale bar corresponds to the proportion of amino acid change. GenBank accession numbers (in parentheses) for either the RdRp sequences or the genome sequences from where the RdRp sequence obtained are as follows: LSV1, Lake Sinai virus 1 (HQ871931), LSV1 MT2014 (KR021356), LSV2 (HQ888865), LSV3 (AFJ04713), LSV4 (AGN98104), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886905), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886903), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886904), LSV6 MT2014 (KR021357), LSV5 JR (AGU62868), LSV5 JR (AGU62866), LSV5 JR (AGU62870), LSV5 JR (AGU62872), LSV5 JR(AGU62874), LSV5 JR (AGU62876), AACV, Anopheline-associated C virus RdRp (YP_009011225), CBPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus (YP_001911137), AlphaNV, Alphanodavirus RdRp (GU976287), MoNV, Mosinovirus RdRp (AIO11151), PaV, Pariacoto virus RdRp (NC_003691), PiRV, Pieris rapae virus RdRp (AY962576), BGANV, Bat guano associated nodavirus (HM228873), BFV, Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus RdRp (NC_011063), SJNNV, Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus ProtA (NC_003448), RSGNNV, Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (AAW32087), AMV, Drosophila melanogaster American nodavirus ProtA (GQ342965), FHV, Flock house virus RdRp (Q66929), MrNV, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus RdRp (NC_005094), PvNV, Penaeus vannamei nodavirus RdRp (NC_014978), NoV Nodamura virus RdRp (NC_002690, NP_077730), LeBNV, Le Blanc nodavirus (JQ943579), OrsNV, Orsay nodavirus RdRp (HM030970), SanNV, Santeuil nodavirus RdRp (NC_015069), MNSV, Melon necrotic spot virus RdRp (53276), CrRLV, and Carrot red leaf virus RdRp (YP_077186).
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viruses-07-02772-f003: Lake Sinai virus phylogenetic relationship inferred from RdRp amino acid sequences. Majority rule Bayesian consensus tree of Lake Sinai viruses derived from Bayesian analysis of an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid alignment implemented in MrBayes v3.1.2 using the WAG amino acid substitution model (Supplementary Figure S6) [39]. Numbers on branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities (0–1). To improve figure clarity only posterior probability values that were less than 1 are shown on the full tree and branch line thickness was used to indicate posterior probabilities (0.5–1) in the LSV inset; the scale bar corresponds to the proportion of amino acid change. GenBank accession numbers (in parentheses) for either the RdRp sequences or the genome sequences from where the RdRp sequence obtained are as follows: LSV1, Lake Sinai virus 1 (HQ871931), LSV1 MT2014 (KR021356), LSV2 (HQ888865), LSV3 (AFJ04713), LSV4 (AGN98104), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886905), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886903), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886904), LSV6 MT2014 (KR021357), LSV5 JR (AGU62868), LSV5 JR (AGU62866), LSV5 JR (AGU62870), LSV5 JR (AGU62872), LSV5 JR(AGU62874), LSV5 JR (AGU62876), AACV, Anopheline-associated C virus RdRp (YP_009011225), CBPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus (YP_001911137), AlphaNV, Alphanodavirus RdRp (GU976287), MoNV, Mosinovirus RdRp (AIO11151), PaV, Pariacoto virus RdRp (NC_003691), PiRV, Pieris rapae virus RdRp (AY962576), BGANV, Bat guano associated nodavirus (HM228873), BFV, Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus RdRp (NC_011063), SJNNV, Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus ProtA (NC_003448), RSGNNV, Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (AAW32087), AMV, Drosophila melanogaster American nodavirus ProtA (GQ342965), FHV, Flock house virus RdRp (Q66929), MrNV, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus RdRp (NC_005094), PvNV, Penaeus vannamei nodavirus RdRp (NC_014978), NoV Nodamura virus RdRp (NC_002690, NP_077730), LeBNV, Le Blanc nodavirus (JQ943579), OrsNV, Orsay nodavirus RdRp (HM030970), SanNV, Santeuil nodavirus RdRp (NC_015069), MNSV, Melon necrotic spot virus RdRp (53276), CrRLV, and Carrot red leaf virus RdRp (YP_077186).

Mentions: We examined the relationship between LSVs and other plant and animal infecting viruses by performing phylogenetic analyses based on the virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid (aa) sequence (Figure 3 and Supplementary Figure S6). The phylogenetic tree derived from this analysis is unrooted, since no suitable outgroup was identified in previous analyses [20,25,30,38]. LSVs are most similar to the honey bee infecting virus Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) and the mosquito-infecting, Anopheline-associated C virus [29,38]. The LSV-containing clade is distinct from the Nodaviridae family, which contains insect, plant, decapod crustacean, and nematode infecting viruses. Interestingly, the Luteoviridae and Tombusviridae virus families, which include numerous viruses that cause plant diseases and are insect-transmitted (e.g., aphids), each form phylogenetically isolated lineages on this RdRp-based phylogenic tree. The 15 LSV RdRp sequences, including both full-length and partial RdRp sequences, did not cluster based on the geographic regions from which they were identified, but did cluster together into a monophyletic clade, which likely warrants designation of a new Sinaivirus genus.


Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

Daughenbaugh KF, Martin M, Brutscher LM, Cavigli I, Garcia E, Lavin M, Flenniken ML - Viruses (2015)

Lake Sinai virus phylogenetic relationship inferred from RdRp amino acid sequences. Majority rule Bayesian consensus tree of Lake Sinai viruses derived from Bayesian analysis of an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid alignment implemented in MrBayes v3.1.2 using the WAG amino acid substitution model (Supplementary Figure S6) [39]. Numbers on branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities (0–1). To improve figure clarity only posterior probability values that were less than 1 are shown on the full tree and branch line thickness was used to indicate posterior probabilities (0.5–1) in the LSV inset; the scale bar corresponds to the proportion of amino acid change. GenBank accession numbers (in parentheses) for either the RdRp sequences or the genome sequences from where the RdRp sequence obtained are as follows: LSV1, Lake Sinai virus 1 (HQ871931), LSV1 MT2014 (KR021356), LSV2 (HQ888865), LSV3 (AFJ04713), LSV4 (AGN98104), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886905), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886903), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886904), LSV6 MT2014 (KR021357), LSV5 JR (AGU62868), LSV5 JR (AGU62866), LSV5 JR (AGU62870), LSV5 JR (AGU62872), LSV5 JR(AGU62874), LSV5 JR (AGU62876), AACV, Anopheline-associated C virus RdRp (YP_009011225), CBPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus (YP_001911137), AlphaNV, Alphanodavirus RdRp (GU976287), MoNV, Mosinovirus RdRp (AIO11151), PaV, Pariacoto virus RdRp (NC_003691), PiRV, Pieris rapae virus RdRp (AY962576), BGANV, Bat guano associated nodavirus (HM228873), BFV, Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus RdRp (NC_011063), SJNNV, Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus ProtA (NC_003448), RSGNNV, Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (AAW32087), AMV, Drosophila melanogaster American nodavirus ProtA (GQ342965), FHV, Flock house virus RdRp (Q66929), MrNV, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus RdRp (NC_005094), PvNV, Penaeus vannamei nodavirus RdRp (NC_014978), NoV Nodamura virus RdRp (NC_002690, NP_077730), LeBNV, Le Blanc nodavirus (JQ943579), OrsNV, Orsay nodavirus RdRp (HM030970), SanNV, Santeuil nodavirus RdRp (NC_015069), MNSV, Melon necrotic spot virus RdRp (53276), CrRLV, and Carrot red leaf virus RdRp (YP_077186).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488739&req=5

viruses-07-02772-f003: Lake Sinai virus phylogenetic relationship inferred from RdRp amino acid sequences. Majority rule Bayesian consensus tree of Lake Sinai viruses derived from Bayesian analysis of an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid alignment implemented in MrBayes v3.1.2 using the WAG amino acid substitution model (Supplementary Figure S6) [39]. Numbers on branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities (0–1). To improve figure clarity only posterior probability values that were less than 1 are shown on the full tree and branch line thickness was used to indicate posterior probabilities (0.5–1) in the LSV inset; the scale bar corresponds to the proportion of amino acid change. GenBank accession numbers (in parentheses) for either the RdRp sequences or the genome sequences from where the RdRp sequence obtained are as follows: LSV1, Lake Sinai virus 1 (HQ871931), LSV1 MT2014 (KR021356), LSV2 (HQ888865), LSV3 (AFJ04713), LSV4 (AGN98104), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886905), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886903), LSV Belgium 2015 (KM886904), LSV6 MT2014 (KR021357), LSV5 JR (AGU62868), LSV5 JR (AGU62866), LSV5 JR (AGU62870), LSV5 JR (AGU62872), LSV5 JR(AGU62874), LSV5 JR (AGU62876), AACV, Anopheline-associated C virus RdRp (YP_009011225), CBPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus (YP_001911137), AlphaNV, Alphanodavirus RdRp (GU976287), MoNV, Mosinovirus RdRp (AIO11151), PaV, Pariacoto virus RdRp (NC_003691), PiRV, Pieris rapae virus RdRp (AY962576), BGANV, Bat guano associated nodavirus (HM228873), BFV, Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus RdRp (NC_011063), SJNNV, Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus ProtA (NC_003448), RSGNNV, Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (AAW32087), AMV, Drosophila melanogaster American nodavirus ProtA (GQ342965), FHV, Flock house virus RdRp (Q66929), MrNV, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus RdRp (NC_005094), PvNV, Penaeus vannamei nodavirus RdRp (NC_014978), NoV Nodamura virus RdRp (NC_002690, NP_077730), LeBNV, Le Blanc nodavirus (JQ943579), OrsNV, Orsay nodavirus RdRp (HM030970), SanNV, Santeuil nodavirus RdRp (NC_015069), MNSV, Melon necrotic spot virus RdRp (53276), CrRLV, and Carrot red leaf virus RdRp (YP_077186).
Mentions: We examined the relationship between LSVs and other plant and animal infecting viruses by performing phylogenetic analyses based on the virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid (aa) sequence (Figure 3 and Supplementary Figure S6). The phylogenetic tree derived from this analysis is unrooted, since no suitable outgroup was identified in previous analyses [20,25,30,38]. LSVs are most similar to the honey bee infecting virus Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) and the mosquito-infecting, Anopheline-associated C virus [29,38]. The LSV-containing clade is distinct from the Nodaviridae family, which contains insect, plant, decapod crustacean, and nematode infecting viruses. Interestingly, the Luteoviridae and Tombusviridae virus families, which include numerous viruses that cause plant diseases and are insect-transmitted (e.g., aphids), each form phylogenetically isolated lineages on this RdRp-based phylogenic tree. The 15 LSV RdRp sequences, including both full-length and partial RdRp sequences, did not cluster based on the geographic regions from which they were identified, but did cluster together into a monophyletic clade, which likely warrants designation of a new Sinaivirus genus.

Bottom Line: Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7.We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination.Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. kdaughenbaugh@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus