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Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

Daughenbaugh KF, Martin M, Brutscher LM, Cavigli I, Garcia E, Lavin M, Flenniken ML - Viruses (2015)

Bottom Line: Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7.We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination.Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. kdaughenbaugh@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of honey bee pathogens detected in weak and strong colonies. Honey bee samples were obtained from 54 monitor colonies from October 2013 to June 2014. PCR was used to test for 16 honey bee infecting pathogens including: viruses (ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, DWV, IAPV, KBV, SBV, LSV1, LSV2, LSV3, LSV4, and LSV5, microsporidia (Nosema spp.; Nos.), bacteria (P. larvae and M. plutonius), and trypanosomatids (Crithidia mellificae, C.m./Lotmaria passim L.p.). The pathogen distribution in (A) weak (<5 frames; n = 41) or (B) strong (>9 frames; n = 81) honey bee colonies is shown as a percentage of the total number of pathogen-specific PCR tests.
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viruses-07-02772-f001: Distribution of honey bee pathogens detected in weak and strong colonies. Honey bee samples were obtained from 54 monitor colonies from October 2013 to June 2014. PCR was used to test for 16 honey bee infecting pathogens including: viruses (ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, DWV, IAPV, KBV, SBV, LSV1, LSV2, LSV3, LSV4, and LSV5, microsporidia (Nosema spp.; Nos.), bacteria (P. larvae and M. plutonius), and trypanosomatids (Crithidia mellificae, C.m./Lotmaria passim L.p.). The pathogen distribution in (A) weak (<5 frames; n = 41) or (B) strong (>9 frames; n = 81) honey bee colonies is shown as a percentage of the total number of pathogen-specific PCR tests.

Mentions: To determine which honey bee pathogens were most common in the Western US, honey bee samples (n = 203) were obtained from commercially managed colonies from October 2013 to June 2014 (n = 54). Colony strength, using colony population size as a proxy for strength, was measured at each sample collection event. We defined weak colonies as those that had less than five frames covered with bees at the time of sampling (n = 41) and strong colonies as those that had nine or more frames covered with bees at the time of sampling (n = 81). We tested these samples for 16 honey bee pathogens (LSV1, LSV2, LSV3, LSV4, LSV5, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Sacbrood virus (SBV), Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Nosema spp., Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius, and trypanosomatids (i.e., Crithidia mellificae/Lotmaria passim [34,35]) using pathogen-specific PCR [36]. There were 122 positive pathogen-specific PCR tests in weak colonies and 292 positive pathogen-specific PCR tests in strong colonies. We determined that LSVs were common and accounted for 37% of the total positive tests in weak colonies and 34% of positive tests in strong colonies (Figure 1). We confirmed that LSV1 and LSV2 were active infections by performing negative strand specific RT-PCR to detect the replicative intermediate form of the virus genomes (Supplementary Figure S1).


Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

Daughenbaugh KF, Martin M, Brutscher LM, Cavigli I, Garcia E, Lavin M, Flenniken ML - Viruses (2015)

Distribution of honey bee pathogens detected in weak and strong colonies. Honey bee samples were obtained from 54 monitor colonies from October 2013 to June 2014. PCR was used to test for 16 honey bee infecting pathogens including: viruses (ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, DWV, IAPV, KBV, SBV, LSV1, LSV2, LSV3, LSV4, and LSV5, microsporidia (Nosema spp.; Nos.), bacteria (P. larvae and M. plutonius), and trypanosomatids (Crithidia mellificae, C.m./Lotmaria passim L.p.). The pathogen distribution in (A) weak (<5 frames; n = 41) or (B) strong (>9 frames; n = 81) honey bee colonies is shown as a percentage of the total number of pathogen-specific PCR tests.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488739&req=5

viruses-07-02772-f001: Distribution of honey bee pathogens detected in weak and strong colonies. Honey bee samples were obtained from 54 monitor colonies from October 2013 to June 2014. PCR was used to test for 16 honey bee infecting pathogens including: viruses (ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, DWV, IAPV, KBV, SBV, LSV1, LSV2, LSV3, LSV4, and LSV5, microsporidia (Nosema spp.; Nos.), bacteria (P. larvae and M. plutonius), and trypanosomatids (Crithidia mellificae, C.m./Lotmaria passim L.p.). The pathogen distribution in (A) weak (<5 frames; n = 41) or (B) strong (>9 frames; n = 81) honey bee colonies is shown as a percentage of the total number of pathogen-specific PCR tests.
Mentions: To determine which honey bee pathogens were most common in the Western US, honey bee samples (n = 203) were obtained from commercially managed colonies from October 2013 to June 2014 (n = 54). Colony strength, using colony population size as a proxy for strength, was measured at each sample collection event. We defined weak colonies as those that had less than five frames covered with bees at the time of sampling (n = 41) and strong colonies as those that had nine or more frames covered with bees at the time of sampling (n = 81). We tested these samples for 16 honey bee pathogens (LSV1, LSV2, LSV3, LSV4, LSV5, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Sacbrood virus (SBV), Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Nosema spp., Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius, and trypanosomatids (i.e., Crithidia mellificae/Lotmaria passim [34,35]) using pathogen-specific PCR [36]. There were 122 positive pathogen-specific PCR tests in weak colonies and 292 positive pathogen-specific PCR tests in strong colonies. We determined that LSVs were common and accounted for 37% of the total positive tests in weak colonies and 34% of positive tests in strong colonies (Figure 1). We confirmed that LSV1 and LSV2 were active infections by performing negative strand specific RT-PCR to detect the replicative intermediate form of the virus genomes (Supplementary Figure S1).

Bottom Line: Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7.We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination.Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. kdaughenbaugh@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus