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Dynamics of virus-receptor interactions in virus binding, signaling, and endocytosis.

Boulant S, Stanifer M, Lozach PY - Viruses (2015)

Bottom Line: During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment.The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell.A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CellNetworks-Cluster of Excellence and Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.boulant@dkfz-heidelberg.de.

ABSTRACT
During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment. The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell. A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information. The focus of this review is on the very initial steps of virus entry, from receptor binding to particle uptake into the host cell. We will discuss how viruses find their receptor, move to sub-membranous regions permissive for entry, and how they hijack the receptor-mediated signaling pathway to promote their internalization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Endocytic signals in virus receptors. Relatively few endocytic signals in receptors have been assessed for their role in virus entry and infection. (A) The LL motif of DC-SIGN is critical for Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) internalization and acts as endocytic motif; (B) The two NPXY motifs in the β1-integrin (β1) seem to act as sorting motifs to direct reovirus into the right endosomal compartment; (C) No function has been attributed to the YNQV motif in CAR regarding infection by adenovirus 5 (Ad5).
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viruses-07-02747-f004: Endocytic signals in virus receptors. Relatively few endocytic signals in receptors have been assessed for their role in virus entry and infection. (A) The LL motif of DC-SIGN is critical for Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) internalization and acts as endocytic motif; (B) The two NPXY motifs in the β1-integrin (β1) seem to act as sorting motifs to direct reovirus into the right endosomal compartment; (C) No function has been attributed to the YNQV motif in CAR regarding infection by adenovirus 5 (Ad5).

Mentions: By interacting with specific adaptor proteins, endocytic motifs determine in general the internalization pathways of cargo, and possibly of viruses. CME represents the best-documented sorting processes of cargo from the plasma membrane into the endocytic machinery. As previously mentioned, DC-SIGN contains a LL-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail, which acts as a typical docking site for adaptor proteins required for the formation of clathrin-coated pits, and therefore, receptor-induced CME [84,99]. The LL motif is critical for the endocytic activity of DC-SIGN [9,100]. Recent work has shown that UUKV is no longer able to enter cells expressing the endocytic-defective LL->AA mutant of DC-SIGN (Figure 4A) [9,101]. This is the only evidence of a direct role for DC-SIGN, beyond attachment, in productive virus internalization [96,100,102]. A role of additional cellular transmembrane factors in the endocytosis of virus particles cannot be however completely ruled out, as it seems that measles virus, which also binds DC-SIGN, requires additional interactions with CD150 for infectious entry [103].


Dynamics of virus-receptor interactions in virus binding, signaling, and endocytosis.

Boulant S, Stanifer M, Lozach PY - Viruses (2015)

Endocytic signals in virus receptors. Relatively few endocytic signals in receptors have been assessed for their role in virus entry and infection. (A) The LL motif of DC-SIGN is critical for Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) internalization and acts as endocytic motif; (B) The two NPXY motifs in the β1-integrin (β1) seem to act as sorting motifs to direct reovirus into the right endosomal compartment; (C) No function has been attributed to the YNQV motif in CAR regarding infection by adenovirus 5 (Ad5).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488714&req=5

viruses-07-02747-f004: Endocytic signals in virus receptors. Relatively few endocytic signals in receptors have been assessed for their role in virus entry and infection. (A) The LL motif of DC-SIGN is critical for Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) internalization and acts as endocytic motif; (B) The two NPXY motifs in the β1-integrin (β1) seem to act as sorting motifs to direct reovirus into the right endosomal compartment; (C) No function has been attributed to the YNQV motif in CAR regarding infection by adenovirus 5 (Ad5).
Mentions: By interacting with specific adaptor proteins, endocytic motifs determine in general the internalization pathways of cargo, and possibly of viruses. CME represents the best-documented sorting processes of cargo from the plasma membrane into the endocytic machinery. As previously mentioned, DC-SIGN contains a LL-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail, which acts as a typical docking site for adaptor proteins required for the formation of clathrin-coated pits, and therefore, receptor-induced CME [84,99]. The LL motif is critical for the endocytic activity of DC-SIGN [9,100]. Recent work has shown that UUKV is no longer able to enter cells expressing the endocytic-defective LL->AA mutant of DC-SIGN (Figure 4A) [9,101]. This is the only evidence of a direct role for DC-SIGN, beyond attachment, in productive virus internalization [96,100,102]. A role of additional cellular transmembrane factors in the endocytosis of virus particles cannot be however completely ruled out, as it seems that measles virus, which also binds DC-SIGN, requires additional interactions with CD150 for infectious entry [103].

Bottom Line: During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment.The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell.A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CellNetworks-Cluster of Excellence and Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.boulant@dkfz-heidelberg.de.

ABSTRACT
During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment. The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell. A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information. The focus of this review is on the very initial steps of virus entry, from receptor binding to particle uptake into the host cell. We will discuss how viruses find their receptor, move to sub-membranous regions permissive for entry, and how they hijack the receptor-mediated signaling pathway to promote their internalization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus