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Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants.

Szlag DC, Sinclair JL, Southwell B, Westrick JA - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin.No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a.These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA. szlag@oakland.edu.

ABSTRACT
An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Oklahoma Total and toxic cyanobacteria and ELISA microcystin.
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toxins-07-02198-f009: Oklahoma Total and toxic cyanobacteria and ELISA microcystin.

Mentions: Total cyanobacteria exceeded the AL 1 10 out of 11 samples (Figure 9). Aphanizomenon, a potential producer of anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin, reached 14,600 cells/mL on 16 May 2005. Microcystis reached its peak of 500 cells on 20 June 2005 and accounted for 50% of the potential microcystin-producers on that day, with the remainder being Anabaena. Cylindrospermopsis reached its peak on 18 July 2005 of 17,000 cells/mL and then declined. It was the sole potential cylindrospermopsin-producer in those samples. These results shown in Figure 10 indicate that all three groups of potential toxin-producers were well represented at the Oklahoma site at some time during the study, but that cylindrospermopsin-producers reached numbers that were higher than the other types.


Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants.

Szlag DC, Sinclair JL, Southwell B, Westrick JA - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Oklahoma Total and toxic cyanobacteria and ELISA microcystin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488698&req=5

toxins-07-02198-f009: Oklahoma Total and toxic cyanobacteria and ELISA microcystin.
Mentions: Total cyanobacteria exceeded the AL 1 10 out of 11 samples (Figure 9). Aphanizomenon, a potential producer of anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin, reached 14,600 cells/mL on 16 May 2005. Microcystis reached its peak of 500 cells on 20 June 2005 and accounted for 50% of the potential microcystin-producers on that day, with the remainder being Anabaena. Cylindrospermopsis reached its peak on 18 July 2005 of 17,000 cells/mL and then declined. It was the sole potential cylindrospermopsin-producer in those samples. These results shown in Figure 10 indicate that all three groups of potential toxin-producers were well represented at the Oklahoma site at some time during the study, but that cylindrospermopsin-producers reached numbers that were higher than the other types.

Bottom Line: Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin.No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a.These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA. szlag@oakland.edu.

ABSTRACT
An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus