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Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants.

Szlag DC, Sinclair JL, Southwell B, Westrick JA - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin.No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a.These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA. szlag@oakland.edu.

ABSTRACT
An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

No MeSH data available.


Florida Reservoir individual toxin producers.
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toxins-07-02198-f008: Florida Reservoir individual toxin producers.

Mentions: The total cyanobacteria exceeded AL 1 11 times in the reservoir. The potential toxin-producer cyanobacterial units were always lower than the total cyanobacteria in the Florida reservoir samples (Figure 7 and Figure 8). The dominant genus was Aphanizomenon. Microcystis genera were uncommon and almost disappeared late in the sample period.


Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants.

Szlag DC, Sinclair JL, Southwell B, Westrick JA - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Florida Reservoir individual toxin producers.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488698&req=5

toxins-07-02198-f008: Florida Reservoir individual toxin producers.
Mentions: The total cyanobacteria exceeded AL 1 11 times in the reservoir. The potential toxin-producer cyanobacterial units were always lower than the total cyanobacteria in the Florida reservoir samples (Figure 7 and Figure 8). The dominant genus was Aphanizomenon. Microcystis genera were uncommon and almost disappeared late in the sample period.

Bottom Line: Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin.No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a.These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA. szlag@oakland.edu.

ABSTRACT
An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

No MeSH data available.