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Ergot alkaloids in feed for Pekin ducks: toxic effects, metabolism and carry over into edible tissues.

Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group.The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation.Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. sven.daenicke@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Hardened sclerotia (ergots) of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA). Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0-49, n = 54/group) was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for total ergot alkaloids (TEA). A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine) with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Estimation of the ergot proportion in diets for ducks (mg/kg diet) where the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet is reached in dependence on varying TEA contents of ergot (mg/g ergot).
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toxins-07-02006-f003: Estimation of the ergot proportion in diets for ducks (mg/kg diet) where the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet is reached in dependence on varying TEA contents of ergot (mg/g ergot).

Mentions: In view of the unreliability of the current feed safety regulations regarding the upper limit of 1000 mg ergot (C. purpurea) per kg unground cereal grains (=0.1%), as specified by Directive 2002/32/EC, and the significant variation in TEA content of ergot as reviewed by EFSA [2], a risk evaluation for the duck covering this variation and considering the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet was performed to identify those dietary ergot levels where this LOAEL is reached for a particular TEA content of ergot (Figure 3). As we failed to derive a NOAEL, the estimated dietary ergot contents indicate ergot levels where adverse effects already can be expected. For example, if the ergot alkaloid content of ergot reaches approximately 0.6 mg/g the permitted ergot content of 1000 mg/kg feed would also be exceeded. However, this is not a realistic scenario as the upper limit applies for pure (unground) cereal grains, which do not constitute the whole diet of a duck (see also Table 2). Rather, the cereal content of a duck diet varies from a few percent up to more than 50%, which also needs to be considered when evaluating the risk of ergot contaminated cereal grains for this poultry species (Figure 3). For example, the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet would correspond to a dietary ergot content of 600 mg/kg diet when the diet would consist of 100% of cereal grains contaminated by ergot with a TEA content of 1 mg/g ergot (Figure 3). If the same grain batch would be incorporated into the diet at a proportion of 50%, the TEA content of the ergot could approximate 2 mg/g. More generally expressed, the area to the right of the curve in Figure 3 represents all combinations of TEA content of ergot and dietary ergot content, which would exceed the LOAEL. Again, as the curve was constructed based on LOAEL instead of the NOAEL, the combinations of dietary ergot content and TEA content of ergot, which would result in safe dietary TEA levels, are not known so far but are within the area left of the curve.


Ergot alkaloids in feed for Pekin ducks: toxic effects, metabolism and carry over into edible tissues.

Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Estimation of the ergot proportion in diets for ducks (mg/kg diet) where the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet is reached in dependence on varying TEA contents of ergot (mg/g ergot).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488687&req=5

toxins-07-02006-f003: Estimation of the ergot proportion in diets for ducks (mg/kg diet) where the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet is reached in dependence on varying TEA contents of ergot (mg/g ergot).
Mentions: In view of the unreliability of the current feed safety regulations regarding the upper limit of 1000 mg ergot (C. purpurea) per kg unground cereal grains (=0.1%), as specified by Directive 2002/32/EC, and the significant variation in TEA content of ergot as reviewed by EFSA [2], a risk evaluation for the duck covering this variation and considering the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet was performed to identify those dietary ergot levels where this LOAEL is reached for a particular TEA content of ergot (Figure 3). As we failed to derive a NOAEL, the estimated dietary ergot contents indicate ergot levels where adverse effects already can be expected. For example, if the ergot alkaloid content of ergot reaches approximately 0.6 mg/g the permitted ergot content of 1000 mg/kg feed would also be exceeded. However, this is not a realistic scenario as the upper limit applies for pure (unground) cereal grains, which do not constitute the whole diet of a duck (see also Table 2). Rather, the cereal content of a duck diet varies from a few percent up to more than 50%, which also needs to be considered when evaluating the risk of ergot contaminated cereal grains for this poultry species (Figure 3). For example, the LOAEL of 0.6 mg TEA/kg diet would correspond to a dietary ergot content of 600 mg/kg diet when the diet would consist of 100% of cereal grains contaminated by ergot with a TEA content of 1 mg/g ergot (Figure 3). If the same grain batch would be incorporated into the diet at a proportion of 50%, the TEA content of the ergot could approximate 2 mg/g. More generally expressed, the area to the right of the curve in Figure 3 represents all combinations of TEA content of ergot and dietary ergot content, which would exceed the LOAEL. Again, as the curve was constructed based on LOAEL instead of the NOAEL, the combinations of dietary ergot content and TEA content of ergot, which would result in safe dietary TEA levels, are not known so far but are within the area left of the curve.

Bottom Line: Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group.The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation.Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. sven.daenicke@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Hardened sclerotia (ergots) of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA). Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0-49, n = 54/group) was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for total ergot alkaloids (TEA). A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine) with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus