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Chromatin Remodelers: From Function to Dysfunction.

Längst G, Manelyte L - Genes (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Even though the remodeling enzymes are very abundant and a multitude of different enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes exist in the cell, the particular remodeling complex with its specific nucleosome positioning features must be at the right place at the right time in order to ensure the proper regulation of the DNA dependent processes.To achieve this, chromatin remodeling complexes harbor protein domains that specifically read chromatin targeting signals, such as histone modifications, DNA sequence/structure, non-coding RNAs, histone variants or DNA bound interacting proteins.Recent studies reveal the interaction between non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes showing importance of RNA in remodeling enzyme targeting, scaffolding and regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biochemistry Center Regensburg, Laboratory of Chromatin Dynamics and Nuclear Architecture, University of Regensbrug, Universitätstraße 31, Regensburg DE-93053, Germany. Gernot.Laengst@vkl.uni-regensburg.de.

ABSTRACT
Chromatin remodelers are key players in the regulation of chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning on the eukaryotic DNA, thereby essential for all DNA dependent biological processes. Thus, it is not surprising that upon of deregulation of those molecular machines healthy cells can turn into cancerous cells. Even though the remodeling enzymes are very abundant and a multitude of different enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes exist in the cell, the particular remodeling complex with its specific nucleosome positioning features must be at the right place at the right time in order to ensure the proper regulation of the DNA dependent processes. To achieve this, chromatin remodeling complexes harbor protein domains that specifically read chromatin targeting signals, such as histone modifications, DNA sequence/structure, non-coding RNAs, histone variants or DNA bound interacting proteins. Recent studies reveal the interaction between non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes showing importance of RNA in remodeling enzyme targeting, scaffolding and regulation. In this review, we summarize current understanding of chromatin remodeling enzyme targeting to chromatin and their role in cancer development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

pRNA inhibits the activity of NoRC. Nucleosomes assembled on the −190 to +90 rDNA DNA fragment were incubated with NoRC, ATP and increasing concentrations of pRNA−143/−39 and pRNA−113/−39. The remodeling reactions were analyzed by EMSA. The arrowhead indicates the nucleosome at the −120/+27 position [55].
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genes-06-00299-f003: pRNA inhibits the activity of NoRC. Nucleosomes assembled on the −190 to +90 rDNA DNA fragment were incubated with NoRC, ATP and increasing concentrations of pRNA−143/−39 and pRNA−113/−39. The remodeling reactions were analyzed by EMSA. The arrowhead indicates the nucleosome at the −120/+27 position [55].

Mentions: Non-coding RNAs play a significant role in the epigenetic control of gene expression and chromatin dynamic. Lots of identified non-coding RNAs have unknown functions, however there is mounting data for their role in gene silencing through the interaction with chromatin remodelers. First identified was promoter RNA (pRNA) originating from intergenic spacer that separates rRNA genes and through interaction with Tip5 (non-catalytic subunit of NoRC complex) recruits NoRC complex to the rRNA gene promoter and leads to silencing [61,62]. In this case, the pRNA most probably has a targeting function, since it competes with the nucleosomes for NoRC binding and in the presence of pRNA NoRC exhibit no nucleosome repositioning activity (Figure 3) [55].


Chromatin Remodelers: From Function to Dysfunction.

Längst G, Manelyte L - Genes (Basel) (2015)

pRNA inhibits the activity of NoRC. Nucleosomes assembled on the −190 to +90 rDNA DNA fragment were incubated with NoRC, ATP and increasing concentrations of pRNA−143/−39 and pRNA−113/−39. The remodeling reactions were analyzed by EMSA. The arrowhead indicates the nucleosome at the −120/+27 position [55].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488666&req=5

genes-06-00299-f003: pRNA inhibits the activity of NoRC. Nucleosomes assembled on the −190 to +90 rDNA DNA fragment were incubated with NoRC, ATP and increasing concentrations of pRNA−143/−39 and pRNA−113/−39. The remodeling reactions were analyzed by EMSA. The arrowhead indicates the nucleosome at the −120/+27 position [55].
Mentions: Non-coding RNAs play a significant role in the epigenetic control of gene expression and chromatin dynamic. Lots of identified non-coding RNAs have unknown functions, however there is mounting data for their role in gene silencing through the interaction with chromatin remodelers. First identified was promoter RNA (pRNA) originating from intergenic spacer that separates rRNA genes and through interaction with Tip5 (non-catalytic subunit of NoRC complex) recruits NoRC complex to the rRNA gene promoter and leads to silencing [61,62]. In this case, the pRNA most probably has a targeting function, since it competes with the nucleosomes for NoRC binding and in the presence of pRNA NoRC exhibit no nucleosome repositioning activity (Figure 3) [55].

Bottom Line: Even though the remodeling enzymes are very abundant and a multitude of different enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes exist in the cell, the particular remodeling complex with its specific nucleosome positioning features must be at the right place at the right time in order to ensure the proper regulation of the DNA dependent processes.To achieve this, chromatin remodeling complexes harbor protein domains that specifically read chromatin targeting signals, such as histone modifications, DNA sequence/structure, non-coding RNAs, histone variants or DNA bound interacting proteins.Recent studies reveal the interaction between non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes showing importance of RNA in remodeling enzyme targeting, scaffolding and regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biochemistry Center Regensburg, Laboratory of Chromatin Dynamics and Nuclear Architecture, University of Regensbrug, Universitätstraße 31, Regensburg DE-93053, Germany. Gernot.Laengst@vkl.uni-regensburg.de.

ABSTRACT
Chromatin remodelers are key players in the regulation of chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning on the eukaryotic DNA, thereby essential for all DNA dependent biological processes. Thus, it is not surprising that upon of deregulation of those molecular machines healthy cells can turn into cancerous cells. Even though the remodeling enzymes are very abundant and a multitude of different enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes exist in the cell, the particular remodeling complex with its specific nucleosome positioning features must be at the right place at the right time in order to ensure the proper regulation of the DNA dependent processes. To achieve this, chromatin remodeling complexes harbor protein domains that specifically read chromatin targeting signals, such as histone modifications, DNA sequence/structure, non-coding RNAs, histone variants or DNA bound interacting proteins. Recent studies reveal the interaction between non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes showing importance of RNA in remodeling enzyme targeting, scaffolding and regulation. In this review, we summarize current understanding of chromatin remodeling enzyme targeting to chromatin and their role in cancer development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus