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The closed-mindedness that wasn't: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information.

Kemmelmeier M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information.Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information.Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Program in Social Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno NV, USA.

ABSTRACT
Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

No MeSH data available.


Likelihood of recall of impression-defining, impression-inconsistent, and neutral behaviors as a function of PNS (Experiment 1). Bars reflect one standard error above and below the mean.
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Figure 1: Likelihood of recall of impression-defining, impression-inconsistent, and neutral behaviors as a function of PNS (Experiment 1). Bars reflect one standard error above and below the mean.

Mentions: A main effect for Behavior Type, F(2,104) = 37.39, p < 0.001, = 0.42, showed that impression-inconsistent behaviors were more likely to be recalled (M = 0.53) than either impression-defining (i.e., majority) behaviors (M = 0.37) or neutral behaviors (M = 0.37). Critically, this effect was qualified by a PNS x Behavior Type interaction, F(2,104) = 3.96, p = 0.022, = 0.07. As displayed in Figure 1, high-PNS individuals were surprisingly less likely to recall impression-defining behaviors, p = 0.016, but, as predicted by Hypothesis 1, somewhat more likely to recall impression-inconsistent behaviors than low-PNS individuals, p = 0.098, though there was no difference in the recall of neutral behaviors, p = 0.16. The only other effect emerged for Order, F(1,105) = 4.10, p = 0.046, = 0.04, which did not interact with any other experimental factor, and was thus inconsequential.


The closed-mindedness that wasn't: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information.

Kemmelmeier M - Front Psychol (2015)

Likelihood of recall of impression-defining, impression-inconsistent, and neutral behaviors as a function of PNS (Experiment 1). Bars reflect one standard error above and below the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488610&req=5

Figure 1: Likelihood of recall of impression-defining, impression-inconsistent, and neutral behaviors as a function of PNS (Experiment 1). Bars reflect one standard error above and below the mean.
Mentions: A main effect for Behavior Type, F(2,104) = 37.39, p < 0.001, = 0.42, showed that impression-inconsistent behaviors were more likely to be recalled (M = 0.53) than either impression-defining (i.e., majority) behaviors (M = 0.37) or neutral behaviors (M = 0.37). Critically, this effect was qualified by a PNS x Behavior Type interaction, F(2,104) = 3.96, p = 0.022, = 0.07. As displayed in Figure 1, high-PNS individuals were surprisingly less likely to recall impression-defining behaviors, p = 0.016, but, as predicted by Hypothesis 1, somewhat more likely to recall impression-inconsistent behaviors than low-PNS individuals, p = 0.098, though there was no difference in the recall of neutral behaviors, p = 0.16. The only other effect emerged for Order, F(1,105) = 4.10, p = 0.046, = 0.04, which did not interact with any other experimental factor, and was thus inconsequential.

Bottom Line: The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information.Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information.Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Program in Social Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno NV, USA.

ABSTRACT
Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

No MeSH data available.