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Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age.

de Bie HM, de Ruiter MB, Ouwendijk M, Oostrom KJ, Wilke M, Boersma M, Veltman DJ, Delemarre-van de Waal HA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition.Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory.Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).

Study design: 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes.

Results: Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA.

Conclusions: This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BOLD activation.BOLD activation maps related to encoding novel pictures of the picture encoding task. Upper part: sagittal cross-sections (x = -30, y = -90, z = -9) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children, representing the left ventral stream with significant activation from the occipital lobe via the fusiform gyrus into the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation. Functional results are thresholded at p<0.005 for display purposes. Lower part: Coronal cross-sections of the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation area (x = -21, y = -27, z = -24) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children. Images thresholded at P<0.005 for display purposes. AGA = average for gestational age, SGA+ = small for gestational age with catch-up growth, SGA- = small for gestational age without catch-up growth.
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pone.0129721.g004: BOLD activation.BOLD activation maps related to encoding novel pictures of the picture encoding task. Upper part: sagittal cross-sections (x = -30, y = -90, z = -9) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children, representing the left ventral stream with significant activation from the occipital lobe via the fusiform gyrus into the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation. Functional results are thresholded at p<0.005 for display purposes. Lower part: Coronal cross-sections of the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation area (x = -21, y = -27, z = -24) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children. Images thresholded at P<0.005 for display purposes. AGA = average for gestational age, SGA+ = small for gestational age with catch-up growth, SGA- = small for gestational age without catch-up growth.

Mentions: We analyzed the BOLD signal for the novel vs overlearned contrast in the total sample of children. As expected, whole-brain analysis showed significant increases in fMRI signal of occipitotemporal regions towards the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation bilaterally, with similar activation patterns in each group (Figs 3 and 4, Table 4). Additional activation was observed bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus.


Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age.

de Bie HM, de Ruiter MB, Ouwendijk M, Oostrom KJ, Wilke M, Boersma M, Veltman DJ, Delemarre-van de Waal HA - PLoS ONE (2015)

BOLD activation.BOLD activation maps related to encoding novel pictures of the picture encoding task. Upper part: sagittal cross-sections (x = -30, y = -90, z = -9) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children, representing the left ventral stream with significant activation from the occipital lobe via the fusiform gyrus into the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation. Functional results are thresholded at p<0.005 for display purposes. Lower part: Coronal cross-sections of the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation area (x = -21, y = -27, z = -24) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children. Images thresholded at P<0.005 for display purposes. AGA = average for gestational age, SGA+ = small for gestational age with catch-up growth, SGA- = small for gestational age without catch-up growth.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488594&req=5

pone.0129721.g004: BOLD activation.BOLD activation maps related to encoding novel pictures of the picture encoding task. Upper part: sagittal cross-sections (x = -30, y = -90, z = -9) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children, representing the left ventral stream with significant activation from the occipital lobe via the fusiform gyrus into the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation. Functional results are thresholded at p<0.005 for display purposes. Lower part: Coronal cross-sections of the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation area (x = -21, y = -27, z = -24) in AGA (A), SGA+ (B) and SGA- (C) children. Images thresholded at P<0.005 for display purposes. AGA = average for gestational age, SGA+ = small for gestational age with catch-up growth, SGA- = small for gestational age without catch-up growth.
Mentions: We analyzed the BOLD signal for the novel vs overlearned contrast in the total sample of children. As expected, whole-brain analysis showed significant increases in fMRI signal of occipitotemporal regions towards the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampal formation bilaterally, with similar activation patterns in each group (Figs 3 and 4, Table 4). Additional activation was observed bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus.

Bottom Line: SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition.Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory.Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).

Study design: 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes.

Results: Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA.

Conclusions: This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus