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Trends and determinants of gastric bacterial colonization of preterm neonates in a NICU setting.

Patel K, Konduru K, Patra AK, Chandel DS, Panigrahi P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Bifidobacterium spp. colonization was significantly higher in exclusively breast milk fed compared to partially breast milk (PBM) fed neonates in first (p = 0.03) and third (p = 0.03) week of life.Anaerobic bacteria colonization decreased from first through fourth week of life (p = 0.03).Delayed oral feeding and use of antibiotics may be responsible for paucity of bacterial species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Newborn gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered sterile but rapidly acquires a diverse microbiota from its intimate environment. Early acquisition of a bacterial species in the upper GI tract may play a role in establishing the colonic microbiota. There is paucity of molecular data on the upper GI tract microbiota in preterm neonates.

Methods: Gastric aspirates from 22 neonates with an average gestational age 27.7 weeks (±2.8), weighing 973.2 grams (±297.9) admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit were collected prospectively from weeks 1-4 of life. All samples were evaluated for microbiota using 16S rRNA-based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Bacterial species colonization and its association with maternal and neonatal demographics, and neonatal clinical characteristics were analyzed.

Results: Bacteroides spp. was the predominant species in all four weeks. Bifidobacterium spp. colonization was significantly higher in exclusively breast milk fed compared to partially breast milk (PBM) fed neonates in first (p = 0.03) and third (p = 0.03) week of life. Anaerobic bacteria colonization decreased from first through fourth week of life (p = 0.03). Aerobic bacteria colonization was highly dynamic throughout the four week period. Premature rupture of membrane (p = 0.05) and birth outside of study hospital (p = 0.006) influenced the acquisition of bacteria in the first week of life. Birth weight was positively correlated with total number of bacterial species (p = 0.002) and anaerobes (p = 0.004) in PBM-fed neonates during the fourth week of life. H. pylori and Ureaplasma were not detected in any of our samples.

Conclusion: Gastric bacterial colonization in preterm neonates is unstable during early weeks of life. Delayed oral feeding and use of antibiotics may be responsible for paucity of bacterial species. Monitoring of the gastric microbiota and concurrent examination of stool microbiota may yield important information on the utility of gastric signature patterns for predicting colon microbiota that may drive GI and immune dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Individual bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during first four weeks.Number of bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during the first four weeks of life, by feeding type. The X-axis in each graph represents individual bacterial species, and the Y-axis in each graph represents the total number of bacterial species. Partially breast milk fed infants were fed breast milk and preterm formula. *Bacteroides spp. includes Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; **Lactobacillus spp. includes Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Other includes DGGE bands that did not correspond to the ATCC standards in the marker. Bacterial species were counted based on DGGE bands.
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pone.0114664.g002: Individual bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during first four weeks.Number of bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during the first four weeks of life, by feeding type. The X-axis in each graph represents individual bacterial species, and the Y-axis in each graph represents the total number of bacterial species. Partially breast milk fed infants were fed breast milk and preterm formula. *Bacteroides spp. includes Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; **Lactobacillus spp. includes Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Other includes DGGE bands that did not correspond to the ATCC standards in the marker. Bacterial species were counted based on DGGE bands.

Mentions: Individual bacterial species isolated from gastric aspirates of all neonates in our study over the first four weeks of life are given in Fig 2. While there was similarity between a few time points (i.e., week one through four) in any individual neonate and some bacteria were common among infants, there were distinct differences among the 22 neonates studied. Even within the four week period, appearance and disappearance of many predominant DGGE bands clearly pointed toward the unstable and changing nature of gastric colonization by known and several unidentified bacterial species. All neonates (with the exception of a single neonate in the PBM group at week-one) in their first month of life, regardless of the feeding type, were uniformly colonized by Bacteroides spp. Other commonly identified bacteria in the first month of life were E. coli, Lactobacillus spp., B. infantis, S.aureus, and C.difficile. Compared to the first week, there appeared to be an overall decline in B. infantis colonization in the fourth week of life which was not statistically significant. However, EBM-fed neonates had higher colonization of B.infantis in the first week (p = 0.03) and third week (p = 0.03) of life compared to PBM-fed neonates. This difference in both EBM-fed and PBM-fed neonates diminished, and was not significant by the end of the fourth week. After adjusting for feeding type, we observed no significant trend in any bacterial species identified (other than Bacteroides spp. and B.infantis) by the end of the fourth week of life. We did not detect Ureaplasma spp. or H. pylori in any of our samples either by DGGE or PCR.


Trends and determinants of gastric bacterial colonization of preterm neonates in a NICU setting.

Patel K, Konduru K, Patra AK, Chandel DS, Panigrahi P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Individual bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during first four weeks.Number of bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during the first four weeks of life, by feeding type. The X-axis in each graph represents individual bacterial species, and the Y-axis in each graph represents the total number of bacterial species. Partially breast milk fed infants were fed breast milk and preterm formula. *Bacteroides spp. includes Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; **Lactobacillus spp. includes Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Other includes DGGE bands that did not correspond to the ATCC standards in the marker. Bacterial species were counted based on DGGE bands.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488554&req=5

pone.0114664.g002: Individual bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during first four weeks.Number of bacterial species detected in gastric aspirate samples of preterm neonates during the first four weeks of life, by feeding type. The X-axis in each graph represents individual bacterial species, and the Y-axis in each graph represents the total number of bacterial species. Partially breast milk fed infants were fed breast milk and preterm formula. *Bacteroides spp. includes Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; **Lactobacillus spp. includes Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Other includes DGGE bands that did not correspond to the ATCC standards in the marker. Bacterial species were counted based on DGGE bands.
Mentions: Individual bacterial species isolated from gastric aspirates of all neonates in our study over the first four weeks of life are given in Fig 2. While there was similarity between a few time points (i.e., week one through four) in any individual neonate and some bacteria were common among infants, there were distinct differences among the 22 neonates studied. Even within the four week period, appearance and disappearance of many predominant DGGE bands clearly pointed toward the unstable and changing nature of gastric colonization by known and several unidentified bacterial species. All neonates (with the exception of a single neonate in the PBM group at week-one) in their first month of life, regardless of the feeding type, were uniformly colonized by Bacteroides spp. Other commonly identified bacteria in the first month of life were E. coli, Lactobacillus spp., B. infantis, S.aureus, and C.difficile. Compared to the first week, there appeared to be an overall decline in B. infantis colonization in the fourth week of life which was not statistically significant. However, EBM-fed neonates had higher colonization of B.infantis in the first week (p = 0.03) and third week (p = 0.03) of life compared to PBM-fed neonates. This difference in both EBM-fed and PBM-fed neonates diminished, and was not significant by the end of the fourth week. After adjusting for feeding type, we observed no significant trend in any bacterial species identified (other than Bacteroides spp. and B.infantis) by the end of the fourth week of life. We did not detect Ureaplasma spp. or H. pylori in any of our samples either by DGGE or PCR.

Bottom Line: Bifidobacterium spp. colonization was significantly higher in exclusively breast milk fed compared to partially breast milk (PBM) fed neonates in first (p = 0.03) and third (p = 0.03) week of life.Anaerobic bacteria colonization decreased from first through fourth week of life (p = 0.03).Delayed oral feeding and use of antibiotics may be responsible for paucity of bacterial species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Newborn gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered sterile but rapidly acquires a diverse microbiota from its intimate environment. Early acquisition of a bacterial species in the upper GI tract may play a role in establishing the colonic microbiota. There is paucity of molecular data on the upper GI tract microbiota in preterm neonates.

Methods: Gastric aspirates from 22 neonates with an average gestational age 27.7 weeks (±2.8), weighing 973.2 grams (±297.9) admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit were collected prospectively from weeks 1-4 of life. All samples were evaluated for microbiota using 16S rRNA-based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Bacterial species colonization and its association with maternal and neonatal demographics, and neonatal clinical characteristics were analyzed.

Results: Bacteroides spp. was the predominant species in all four weeks. Bifidobacterium spp. colonization was significantly higher in exclusively breast milk fed compared to partially breast milk (PBM) fed neonates in first (p = 0.03) and third (p = 0.03) week of life. Anaerobic bacteria colonization decreased from first through fourth week of life (p = 0.03). Aerobic bacteria colonization was highly dynamic throughout the four week period. Premature rupture of membrane (p = 0.05) and birth outside of study hospital (p = 0.006) influenced the acquisition of bacteria in the first week of life. Birth weight was positively correlated with total number of bacterial species (p = 0.002) and anaerobes (p = 0.004) in PBM-fed neonates during the fourth week of life. H. pylori and Ureaplasma were not detected in any of our samples.

Conclusion: Gastric bacterial colonization in preterm neonates is unstable during early weeks of life. Delayed oral feeding and use of antibiotics may be responsible for paucity of bacterial species. Monitoring of the gastric microbiota and concurrent examination of stool microbiota may yield important information on the utility of gastric signature patterns for predicting colon microbiota that may drive GI and immune dysfunctions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus