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Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment.

Tait AH, Raubenheimer D, Green MP, Cupido CL, Gluckman PD, Vickers MH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance.The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations.This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Liggins Institute and Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Offspring birth weights (a,b), weaning (c,d) and adult weights (e,f), by sex.Circles represent R, squares represent HF and triangles represent LP. Data are shown as means ± SEM. *F2>F3; #LP<R; &F2<F3; @HF>R and LP; $F1>F2, + HF:F1<F2. Results of the corresponding statistical analyses are shown in S3 Table.
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pone.0129779.g002: Offspring birth weights (a,b), weaning (c,d) and adult weights (e,f), by sex.Circles represent R, squares represent HF and triangles represent LP. Data are shown as means ± SEM. *F2>F3; #LP<R; &F2<F3; @HF>R and LP; $F1>F2, + HF:F1<F2. Results of the corresponding statistical analyses are shown in S3 Table.

Mentions: Details of the animal model including maternal weight gain and food intake during pregnancy, litter size, maternal food intake during lactation are presented in S3 Table and S1 Fig Pup birth weights, weaning and adult weights are presented in Fig 2 and S3 Table. There was an overall higher birthweight in F2 compared to F3 and birthweights in the LP group were lower than for the R group for both males and females (Fig 2A and 2B). At weaning, body weights at F2 were lower in F2 males compared to F3 but this was not observed in females. For both males and females, weaning weights in the HF group were increased compared to both R and LP groups and the LP group weaning weights significantly lower compared to both R and HF offspring (Fig 2C and 2D). For male adult body weights, F1 weights were higher than for F2 and HF weights greater than for R (Fig 2E). For adult females, there were no differences across R and LP groups for HF offspring F1 weights were reduced overall compared to F2 (Fig 2F). As a baseline control, we have also shown in an independent cohort that male and female offspring fed the standard chow control diet do not show any weight changes over successive generations (S2 Fig).


Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment.

Tait AH, Raubenheimer D, Green MP, Cupido CL, Gluckman PD, Vickers MH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Offspring birth weights (a,b), weaning (c,d) and adult weights (e,f), by sex.Circles represent R, squares represent HF and triangles represent LP. Data are shown as means ± SEM. *F2>F3; #LP<R; &F2<F3; @HF>R and LP; $F1>F2, + HF:F1<F2. Results of the corresponding statistical analyses are shown in S3 Table.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488537&req=5

pone.0129779.g002: Offspring birth weights (a,b), weaning (c,d) and adult weights (e,f), by sex.Circles represent R, squares represent HF and triangles represent LP. Data are shown as means ± SEM. *F2>F3; #LP<R; &F2<F3; @HF>R and LP; $F1>F2, + HF:F1<F2. Results of the corresponding statistical analyses are shown in S3 Table.
Mentions: Details of the animal model including maternal weight gain and food intake during pregnancy, litter size, maternal food intake during lactation are presented in S3 Table and S1 Fig Pup birth weights, weaning and adult weights are presented in Fig 2 and S3 Table. There was an overall higher birthweight in F2 compared to F3 and birthweights in the LP group were lower than for the R group for both males and females (Fig 2A and 2B). At weaning, body weights at F2 were lower in F2 males compared to F3 but this was not observed in females. For both males and females, weaning weights in the HF group were increased compared to both R and LP groups and the LP group weaning weights significantly lower compared to both R and HF offspring (Fig 2C and 2D). For male adult body weights, F1 weights were higher than for F2 and HF weights greater than for R (Fig 2E). For adult females, there were no differences across R and LP groups for HF offspring F1 weights were reduced overall compared to F2 (Fig 2F). As a baseline control, we have also shown in an independent cohort that male and female offspring fed the standard chow control diet do not show any weight changes over successive generations (S2 Fig).

Bottom Line: We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance.The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations.This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Liggins Institute and Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus