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Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment.

Tait AH, Raubenheimer D, Green MP, Cupido CL, Gluckman PD, Vickers MH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance.The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations.This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Liggins Institute and Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental design.The parental generation of rats (P) experienced a transition aged approx. 32 days in the form of relocation to our animal facility and a shift from grain-based nutrition to a reference purified-ingredient diet (R). P rats were mated to produce the first of three generations fed exclusively on purified-ingredient diets (F1). F1 offspring were either maintained on R, or were fed a high fat purified diet (HF) or a moderately low protein purified diet (LP) from weaning onwards. Second and third purified diet generations (F2, F3) were generated by mating females from each lineage (R, HF, LP) with males from the R lineage.
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pone.0129779.g001: Experimental design.The parental generation of rats (P) experienced a transition aged approx. 32 days in the form of relocation to our animal facility and a shift from grain-based nutrition to a reference purified-ingredient diet (R). P rats were mated to produce the first of three generations fed exclusively on purified-ingredient diets (F1). F1 offspring were either maintained on R, or were fed a high fat purified diet (HF) or a moderately low protein purified diet (LP) from weaning onwards. Second and third purified diet generations (F2, F3) were generated by mating females from each lineage (R, HF, LP) with males from the R lineage.

Mentions: The parental generation (P) of Wistar rats (15 males, 30 females, all non-littermates) was sourced from a colony maintained on a grain-based diet (VRF1) from Charles River Laboratories (Charles River UK Ltd., Kent, UK) and transported to our research facility in Auckland, New Zealand. Upon arrival, aged approximately 32 days, P rats experienced a nutritional transition to a reference purified-ingredient diet (R) (Table 1, Fig 1). Purified-ingredient diets can be obesogenic for rats due to increased palatability, greater energy density [27, 28] and greater nutrient conversion efficiencies [27, 29, 30]. First, second and third generation offspring of P rats (F1, F2 and F3, respectively) were all fed exclusively on purified-ingredient diets.


Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment.

Tait AH, Raubenheimer D, Green MP, Cupido CL, Gluckman PD, Vickers MH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Experimental design.The parental generation of rats (P) experienced a transition aged approx. 32 days in the form of relocation to our animal facility and a shift from grain-based nutrition to a reference purified-ingredient diet (R). P rats were mated to produce the first of three generations fed exclusively on purified-ingredient diets (F1). F1 offspring were either maintained on R, or were fed a high fat purified diet (HF) or a moderately low protein purified diet (LP) from weaning onwards. Second and third purified diet generations (F2, F3) were generated by mating females from each lineage (R, HF, LP) with males from the R lineage.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488537&req=5

pone.0129779.g001: Experimental design.The parental generation of rats (P) experienced a transition aged approx. 32 days in the form of relocation to our animal facility and a shift from grain-based nutrition to a reference purified-ingredient diet (R). P rats were mated to produce the first of three generations fed exclusively on purified-ingredient diets (F1). F1 offspring were either maintained on R, or were fed a high fat purified diet (HF) or a moderately low protein purified diet (LP) from weaning onwards. Second and third purified diet generations (F2, F3) were generated by mating females from each lineage (R, HF, LP) with males from the R lineage.
Mentions: The parental generation (P) of Wistar rats (15 males, 30 females, all non-littermates) was sourced from a colony maintained on a grain-based diet (VRF1) from Charles River Laboratories (Charles River UK Ltd., Kent, UK) and transported to our research facility in Auckland, New Zealand. Upon arrival, aged approximately 32 days, P rats experienced a nutritional transition to a reference purified-ingredient diet (R) (Table 1, Fig 1). Purified-ingredient diets can be obesogenic for rats due to increased palatability, greater energy density [27, 28] and greater nutrient conversion efficiencies [27, 29, 30]. First, second and third generation offspring of P rats (F1, F2 and F3, respectively) were all fed exclusively on purified-ingredient diets.

Bottom Line: We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance.The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations.This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Liggins Institute and Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus