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In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

Aziz R, Rafiq MT, He Z, Liu D, Sun K, Xiaoe Y - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively.Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil.Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

ABSTRACT
The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of different Cd loading rates on the gastric and small intestinal bioaccessibility of Cd expressed as a percentage of the total concentrations in the Chinese cabbage shoots grown on YS (a) and CS (b). *YS refer to yellow soil and CS calcareous soil. The results are expressed as mean ± SD with three replications. Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 as calculated by Duncan's post hoc test.
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fig2: Effect of different Cd loading rates on the gastric and small intestinal bioaccessibility of Cd expressed as a percentage of the total concentrations in the Chinese cabbage shoots grown on YS (a) and CS (b). *YS refer to yellow soil and CS calcareous soil. The results are expressed as mean ± SD with three replications. Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 as calculated by Duncan's post hoc test.

Mentions: The amount of Cd solubilized after in vitro digestion is an indicator of bioavailability. Cadmium bioaccessibility in gastric and small intestinal phases significantly affected the increase in Cd loading rates (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). Cadmium bioaccessibility in gastric phase (17.32–63.62%) and in small intestinal phase (7.50–34.54%) were found to be significantly higher in YS cabbage than CS cabbage with the corresponding values of 7.21–37.32% and 1.57–20.43%, respectively. Cadmium bioaccessibility in both soils cabbage was highest in gastric phase than in small intestinal phase.


In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

Aziz R, Rafiq MT, He Z, Liu D, Sun K, Xiaoe Y - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Effect of different Cd loading rates on the gastric and small intestinal bioaccessibility of Cd expressed as a percentage of the total concentrations in the Chinese cabbage shoots grown on YS (a) and CS (b). *YS refer to yellow soil and CS calcareous soil. The results are expressed as mean ± SD with three replications. Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 as calculated by Duncan's post hoc test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488525&req=5

fig2: Effect of different Cd loading rates on the gastric and small intestinal bioaccessibility of Cd expressed as a percentage of the total concentrations in the Chinese cabbage shoots grown on YS (a) and CS (b). *YS refer to yellow soil and CS calcareous soil. The results are expressed as mean ± SD with three replications. Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 as calculated by Duncan's post hoc test.
Mentions: The amount of Cd solubilized after in vitro digestion is an indicator of bioavailability. Cadmium bioaccessibility in gastric and small intestinal phases significantly affected the increase in Cd loading rates (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). Cadmium bioaccessibility in gastric phase (17.32–63.62%) and in small intestinal phase (7.50–34.54%) were found to be significantly higher in YS cabbage than CS cabbage with the corresponding values of 7.21–37.32% and 1.57–20.43%, respectively. Cadmium bioaccessibility in both soils cabbage was highest in gastric phase than in small intestinal phase.

Bottom Line: Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively.Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil.Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

ABSTRACT
The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus