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Successful Working Memory Processes and Cerebellum in an Elderly Sample: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study.

Luis EO, Arrondo G, Vidorreta M, Martínez M, Loayza F, Fernández-Seara MA, Pastor MA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies.Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Imaging studies help to understand the evolution of key cognitive processes related to aging, such as working memory (WM). This study aimed to test three hypotheses in older adults. First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.

Methods: We used a neuropsychological assessment with functional magnetic resonance imaging and a core N-back paradigm design that was maintained across the combination of four conditions of stimuli and two memory loads in a sample of twenty elderly subjects.

Results: During low-loads, activations were located in the visual ventral network. In high loads, there was an involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in addition to the frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, we detected an executive control role of the cerebellum in a relatively symmetric fronto-parietal network. Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies. The differential activations between conditions were stimuli-dependent and were located in sensory areas.

Conclusion: Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Areas of conjoint activation across the different WM stimulation conditions and PPI analyses.A. Red: areas active in the 4 conditions. Green: 3 conditions. Blue: 2 conditions. Violet: 1 condition and PPI conditions and loads. B: High visual phonological task. C: High auditory phonological task. D and E: Low and High loads in visual task, receptivity. F: High load spatial task. (p < 0.05 FWE cluster-wise corrected on voxels with p < 0.001).
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pone.0131536.g003: Areas of conjoint activation across the different WM stimulation conditions and PPI analyses.A. Red: areas active in the 4 conditions. Green: 3 conditions. Blue: 2 conditions. Violet: 1 condition and PPI conditions and loads. B: High visual phonological task. C: High auditory phonological task. D and E: Low and High loads in visual task, receptivity. F: High load spatial task. (p < 0.05 FWE cluster-wise corrected on voxels with p < 0.001).

Mentions: We performed a conjunction analysis for the stimulus conditions to identify regions involved in common processes to all tasks. Activation was common to all conditions in areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, ACC, insula, SMA, precentral and parietal gyri and at the subcortical level in the right thalamus (Ventral lateral anterior nucleus VLATN), pallidum and cerebellum (VI, VIIIA/Crus I lobule and Vermis). The overall pattern of activations can be described as highly symmetrical. The recruitment of the primary and secondary visual areas was common to all three tasks with visual input (VPh, V and S) and especially to V and S. Moreover, a fronto-parietal pattern of activations was greater in visuospatial than phonological paradigms. Additionally, we observed a bilateral activation of the thalamus in APh, V and S. Finally, phonological paradigms shared activations in parieto-temporal areas (Fig 3A).


Successful Working Memory Processes and Cerebellum in an Elderly Sample: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study.

Luis EO, Arrondo G, Vidorreta M, Martínez M, Loayza F, Fernández-Seara MA, Pastor MA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Areas of conjoint activation across the different WM stimulation conditions and PPI analyses.A. Red: areas active in the 4 conditions. Green: 3 conditions. Blue: 2 conditions. Violet: 1 condition and PPI conditions and loads. B: High visual phonological task. C: High auditory phonological task. D and E: Low and High loads in visual task, receptivity. F: High load spatial task. (p < 0.05 FWE cluster-wise corrected on voxels with p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488500&req=5

pone.0131536.g003: Areas of conjoint activation across the different WM stimulation conditions and PPI analyses.A. Red: areas active in the 4 conditions. Green: 3 conditions. Blue: 2 conditions. Violet: 1 condition and PPI conditions and loads. B: High visual phonological task. C: High auditory phonological task. D and E: Low and High loads in visual task, receptivity. F: High load spatial task. (p < 0.05 FWE cluster-wise corrected on voxels with p < 0.001).
Mentions: We performed a conjunction analysis for the stimulus conditions to identify regions involved in common processes to all tasks. Activation was common to all conditions in areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, ACC, insula, SMA, precentral and parietal gyri and at the subcortical level in the right thalamus (Ventral lateral anterior nucleus VLATN), pallidum and cerebellum (VI, VIIIA/Crus I lobule and Vermis). The overall pattern of activations can be described as highly symmetrical. The recruitment of the primary and secondary visual areas was common to all three tasks with visual input (VPh, V and S) and especially to V and S. Moreover, a fronto-parietal pattern of activations was greater in visuospatial than phonological paradigms. Additionally, we observed a bilateral activation of the thalamus in APh, V and S. Finally, phonological paradigms shared activations in parieto-temporal areas (Fig 3A).

Bottom Line: First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies.Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Imaging studies help to understand the evolution of key cognitive processes related to aging, such as working memory (WM). This study aimed to test three hypotheses in older adults. First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.

Methods: We used a neuropsychological assessment with functional magnetic resonance imaging and a core N-back paradigm design that was maintained across the combination of four conditions of stimuli and two memory loads in a sample of twenty elderly subjects.

Results: During low-loads, activations were located in the visual ventral network. In high loads, there was an involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in addition to the frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, we detected an executive control role of the cerebellum in a relatively symmetric fronto-parietal network. Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies. The differential activations between conditions were stimuli-dependent and were located in sensory areas.

Conclusion: Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus