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Successful Working Memory Processes and Cerebellum in an Elderly Sample: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study.

Luis EO, Arrondo G, Vidorreta M, Martínez M, Loayza F, Fernández-Seara MA, Pastor MA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies.Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Imaging studies help to understand the evolution of key cognitive processes related to aging, such as working memory (WM). This study aimed to test three hypotheses in older adults. First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.

Methods: We used a neuropsychological assessment with functional magnetic resonance imaging and a core N-back paradigm design that was maintained across the combination of four conditions of stimuli and two memory loads in a sample of twenty elderly subjects.

Results: During low-loads, activations were located in the visual ventral network. In high loads, there was an involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in addition to the frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, we detected an executive control role of the cerebellum in a relatively symmetric fronto-parietal network. Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies. The differential activations between conditions were stimuli-dependent and were located in sensory areas.

Conclusion: Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme of the presentation in the four stimulus conditions.Above: low memory load. Below: high memory load. A: VPh, B: APh, C: V and D: S. In each case if the left answer was presented the participant would have to answer “match” whereas if the answer shown was the one to the right the subject would have to respond “mismatch” with the button box.
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pone.0131536.g001: Scheme of the presentation in the four stimulus conditions.Above: low memory load. Below: high memory load. A: VPh, B: APh, C: V and D: S. In each case if the left answer was presented the participant would have to answer “match” whereas if the answer shown was the one to the right the subject would have to respond “mismatch” with the button box.

Mentions: Regarding the two memory loads, for the remainder of the article high-load conditions will be abbreviated with the prefix H and low-load with L (e.g. HPV for the high load visuo-phonological verbal condition, LV for the low-load verbal condition). In the low memory load paradigms, a 1-back task was employed (block duration = 16 s). For the high load paradigms, a 3-back task (block duration = 36 s) was used. The time of stimulus presentation was 500 ms with an interval between stimuli (ISI) of 2000 ms. Subjects were instructed to respond true (match) or false (mismatch) by pressing a different button in a response box. Answers matched the cue in half of the events and the order of matches and mismatches was pseudo-randomized (Fig 1).


Successful Working Memory Processes and Cerebellum in an Elderly Sample: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study.

Luis EO, Arrondo G, Vidorreta M, Martínez M, Loayza F, Fernández-Seara MA, Pastor MA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Scheme of the presentation in the four stimulus conditions.Above: low memory load. Below: high memory load. A: VPh, B: APh, C: V and D: S. In each case if the left answer was presented the participant would have to answer “match” whereas if the answer shown was the one to the right the subject would have to respond “mismatch” with the button box.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488500&req=5

pone.0131536.g001: Scheme of the presentation in the four stimulus conditions.Above: low memory load. Below: high memory load. A: VPh, B: APh, C: V and D: S. In each case if the left answer was presented the participant would have to answer “match” whereas if the answer shown was the one to the right the subject would have to respond “mismatch” with the button box.
Mentions: Regarding the two memory loads, for the remainder of the article high-load conditions will be abbreviated with the prefix H and low-load with L (e.g. HPV for the high load visuo-phonological verbal condition, LV for the low-load verbal condition). In the low memory load paradigms, a 1-back task was employed (block duration = 16 s). For the high load paradigms, a 3-back task (block duration = 36 s) was used. The time of stimulus presentation was 500 ms with an interval between stimuli (ISI) of 2000 ms. Subjects were instructed to respond true (match) or false (mismatch) by pressing a different button in a response box. Answers matched the cue in half of the events and the order of matches and mismatches was pseudo-randomized (Fig 1).

Bottom Line: First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies.Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Imaging studies help to understand the evolution of key cognitive processes related to aging, such as working memory (WM). This study aimed to test three hypotheses in older adults. First, that the brain activation pattern associated to WM processes in elderly during successful low load tasks is located in posterior sensory and associative areas; second, that the prefrontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia should be more active during high-demand tasks; third, that cerebellar activations are related to high-demand cognitive tasks and have a specific lateralization depending on the condition.

Methods: We used a neuropsychological assessment with functional magnetic resonance imaging and a core N-back paradigm design that was maintained across the combination of four conditions of stimuli and two memory loads in a sample of twenty elderly subjects.

Results: During low-loads, activations were located in the visual ventral network. In high loads, there was an involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in addition to the frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, we detected an executive control role of the cerebellum in a relatively symmetric fronto-parietal network. Nevertheless, this network showed a predominantly left lateralization in parietal regions associated presumably with an overuse of verbal storage strategies. The differential activations between conditions were stimuli-dependent and were located in sensory areas.

Conclusion: Successful WM processes in the elderly population are accompanied by an activation pattern that involves cerebellar regions working together with a fronto-parietal network.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus