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The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province.

d'Alpoim Guedes J, Jin G, Bocinsky RK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region.Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype.Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

ABSTRACT
Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The thermal niche of temperate and tropical O. japonica at a series of different temperature perturbations.The area in red represents the area in which tropical O. japonica can be grown. The area in white represents the area in which temperate O. japonica can be grown. Sites represented by black dots are sites where only millet has been recovered from the assemblage. Sites with a black square represent sites where rice has been unearthed in contexts dating to 6000–5000 cal. BC. Sites with an open circle are sites where rice has been unearthed between 5000–3000 cal. BC, however come from poor or undated contexts. Sites with a black triangle represent finds of rice that date between 2600–2000 cal. BC. Sites with a diamond represents sites where rice has been found that post-dates 1800 cal. BC. Map relief from ETOPO1 [6]; country and province outlines from Natural Earth (naturalearthdata.com).
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pone.0130430.g003: The thermal niche of temperate and tropical O. japonica at a series of different temperature perturbations.The area in red represents the area in which tropical O. japonica can be grown. The area in white represents the area in which temperate O. japonica can be grown. Sites represented by black dots are sites where only millet has been recovered from the assemblage. Sites with a black square represent sites where rice has been unearthed in contexts dating to 6000–5000 cal. BC. Sites with an open circle are sites where rice has been unearthed between 5000–3000 cal. BC, however come from poor or undated contexts. Sites with a black triangle represent finds of rice that date between 2600–2000 cal. BC. Sites with a diamond represents sites where rice has been found that post-dates 1800 cal. BC. Map relief from ETOPO1 [6]; country and province outlines from Natural Earth (naturalearthdata.com).

Mentions: Our GDD maps show the distribution of temperate and tropical varieties of O. japonica under different sets of temperature perturbations. At modern temperatures, tropical varieties of O. japonica cannot be grown in Shandong province (Fig 3). However, minor perturbations in temperature could have had a major effect on where rice could be grown. If we follow Marcott [23] in assuming that the climatic optimum was roughly 1°C warmer than the modern (1961–1990) period, then the range of tropical O. japonica extends to cover large parts of central Shandong and part of the southern coastline. Houli period sites are within the range for tropical O. japonica at this temperature perturbation (Fig 3). It is thus likely that incipient farmers or hunter-gatherers took advantage of wild populations of rice that grew in the area. Although our modeling demonstrates that it would not have been necessary for them to engage in trade to obtain this grain, Chi has argued that cultural connections with the Huai river valley suggest that rice farmers from areas to the south may have moved grain into Shandong [13]. It has been suggested that incipient farmers or hunter-gatherers who exploited rice may have moved into Haidai region from the Huai River valley and Yellow River valleys as extensive evidence of close cultural contact exists between these two regions [60–63].


The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province.

d'Alpoim Guedes J, Jin G, Bocinsky RK - PLoS ONE (2015)

The thermal niche of temperate and tropical O. japonica at a series of different temperature perturbations.The area in red represents the area in which tropical O. japonica can be grown. The area in white represents the area in which temperate O. japonica can be grown. Sites represented by black dots are sites where only millet has been recovered from the assemblage. Sites with a black square represent sites where rice has been unearthed in contexts dating to 6000–5000 cal. BC. Sites with an open circle are sites where rice has been unearthed between 5000–3000 cal. BC, however come from poor or undated contexts. Sites with a black triangle represent finds of rice that date between 2600–2000 cal. BC. Sites with a diamond represents sites where rice has been found that post-dates 1800 cal. BC. Map relief from ETOPO1 [6]; country and province outlines from Natural Earth (naturalearthdata.com).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488397&req=5

pone.0130430.g003: The thermal niche of temperate and tropical O. japonica at a series of different temperature perturbations.The area in red represents the area in which tropical O. japonica can be grown. The area in white represents the area in which temperate O. japonica can be grown. Sites represented by black dots are sites where only millet has been recovered from the assemblage. Sites with a black square represent sites where rice has been unearthed in contexts dating to 6000–5000 cal. BC. Sites with an open circle are sites where rice has been unearthed between 5000–3000 cal. BC, however come from poor or undated contexts. Sites with a black triangle represent finds of rice that date between 2600–2000 cal. BC. Sites with a diamond represents sites where rice has been found that post-dates 1800 cal. BC. Map relief from ETOPO1 [6]; country and province outlines from Natural Earth (naturalearthdata.com).
Mentions: Our GDD maps show the distribution of temperate and tropical varieties of O. japonica under different sets of temperature perturbations. At modern temperatures, tropical varieties of O. japonica cannot be grown in Shandong province (Fig 3). However, minor perturbations in temperature could have had a major effect on where rice could be grown. If we follow Marcott [23] in assuming that the climatic optimum was roughly 1°C warmer than the modern (1961–1990) period, then the range of tropical O. japonica extends to cover large parts of central Shandong and part of the southern coastline. Houli period sites are within the range for tropical O. japonica at this temperature perturbation (Fig 3). It is thus likely that incipient farmers or hunter-gatherers took advantage of wild populations of rice that grew in the area. Although our modeling demonstrates that it would not have been necessary for them to engage in trade to obtain this grain, Chi has argued that cultural connections with the Huai river valley suggest that rice farmers from areas to the south may have moved grain into Shandong [13]. It has been suggested that incipient farmers or hunter-gatherers who exploited rice may have moved into Haidai region from the Huai River valley and Yellow River valleys as extensive evidence of close cultural contact exists between these two regions [60–63].

Bottom Line: Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region.Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype.Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

ABSTRACT
Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus