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Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

Migliaccio O, Castellano I, Cirino P, Romano G, Palumbo A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression.Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water.Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Synopsis of the patterns of up- and down-regulation of different classes of genes in the offspring of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium (Cd) or manganese (Mn) for 2 and 9 days.The two arrows indicate the up- or down-regulation of genes in different developmental stages.
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pone.0131815.g006: Synopsis of the patterns of up- and down-regulation of different classes of genes in the offspring of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium (Cd) or manganese (Mn) for 2 and 9 days.The two arrows indicate the up- or down-regulation of genes in different developmental stages.

Mentions: Analysis of the different classes of genes revealed little variations in the number and type of genes affected in embryos reared in cadmium-containing sea water, compared to embryos reared in sea water without metal, at both times of exposure (Fig 6). The situation was different in the offspring of females treated with manganese. When females were exposed for short periods (2 days) almost all classes of genes were affected only when offspring was reared in sea water containing manganese. At longer time of treatments (9 days) also in the offspring reared in sea water without metals the majority of classes of genes was regulated. The different response at gene level of sea urchin developing embryos from females exposed to cadmium and manganese is correlated to the different nature of these metals. Indeed, cadmium is a known heavy metal, toxic even at very low concentrations [71] and without any biological role, whereas manganese is a naturally occurring metal required in trace amounts by the organisms, toxic only at high levels. These results again confirmed the higher toxicity of cadmium compared to manganese. On the other hand, after maternal treatments for longer periods (9 days), the offspring of females exposed to both cadmium and manganese showed a great variation in the expression of the majority of the selected genes, indicating that the time of maternal exposure affects the molecular response of the offspring. However, considering that gene expression is only a part of the cascade processes leading to the elevated expression of a protein, future studies should be directed to obtain a clear picture of the dynamics of the defensome systems in P. lividus by investigating the protein expression patterns.


Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

Migliaccio O, Castellano I, Cirino P, Romano G, Palumbo A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Synopsis of the patterns of up- and down-regulation of different classes of genes in the offspring of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium (Cd) or manganese (Mn) for 2 and 9 days.The two arrows indicate the up- or down-regulation of genes in different developmental stages.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488381&req=5

pone.0131815.g006: Synopsis of the patterns of up- and down-regulation of different classes of genes in the offspring of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium (Cd) or manganese (Mn) for 2 and 9 days.The two arrows indicate the up- or down-regulation of genes in different developmental stages.
Mentions: Analysis of the different classes of genes revealed little variations in the number and type of genes affected in embryos reared in cadmium-containing sea water, compared to embryos reared in sea water without metal, at both times of exposure (Fig 6). The situation was different in the offspring of females treated with manganese. When females were exposed for short periods (2 days) almost all classes of genes were affected only when offspring was reared in sea water containing manganese. At longer time of treatments (9 days) also in the offspring reared in sea water without metals the majority of classes of genes was regulated. The different response at gene level of sea urchin developing embryos from females exposed to cadmium and manganese is correlated to the different nature of these metals. Indeed, cadmium is a known heavy metal, toxic even at very low concentrations [71] and without any biological role, whereas manganese is a naturally occurring metal required in trace amounts by the organisms, toxic only at high levels. These results again confirmed the higher toxicity of cadmium compared to manganese. On the other hand, after maternal treatments for longer periods (9 days), the offspring of females exposed to both cadmium and manganese showed a great variation in the expression of the majority of the selected genes, indicating that the time of maternal exposure affects the molecular response of the offspring. However, considering that gene expression is only a part of the cascade processes leading to the elevated expression of a protein, future studies should be directed to obtain a clear picture of the dynamics of the defensome systems in P. lividus by investigating the protein expression patterns.

Bottom Line: The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression.Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water.Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus