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Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

Migliaccio O, Castellano I, Cirino P, Romano G, Palumbo A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression.Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water.Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gene expression analysis in the progeny of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium 10−6 M for 2 days (A,B) and 9 days (C,D).The embryos were reared in sea water (A,C) and in cadmium-containing sea water (B,D). Data are reported as a fold difference in the expression levels of the analyzed genes, compared to controls (mean ± SD), offspring of females kept during the whole experimental period in sea water without addition of metal. Fold differences equal or greater than ± 2 (see horizontal guidelines at values of 2 and—2) were considered significant. Experiments were repeated at least on 3 biological replicates.
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pone.0131815.g004: Gene expression analysis in the progeny of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium 10−6 M for 2 days (A,B) and 9 days (C,D).The embryos were reared in sea water (A,C) and in cadmium-containing sea water (B,D). Data are reported as a fold difference in the expression levels of the analyzed genes, compared to controls (mean ± SD), offspring of females kept during the whole experimental period in sea water without addition of metal. Fold differences equal or greater than ± 2 (see horizontal guidelines at values of 2 and—2) were considered significant. Experiments were repeated at least on 3 biological replicates.

Mentions: Further experiments were performed to evaluate possible variation in the expression of genes involved in several processes, such as stress response (heat shock proteins hsp70, hsp60 and hsp56), skeletogenesis (spicule matrix proteins sm30, sm50 and msp130, the growth factor bmp5-7, the proteins involved in skeleton formation p16 and p19, the fibroblast growth factor fg9/16/20), detoxification (metallothioneins mt4, mt5, mt6, mt7 and mt8), multidrug efflux (abc transporter abc1b, abc4a, abc8b, abc1a) and NO production (nos). Their expression was followed at the different developmental stages in the offspring of females exposed to cadmium (Fig 4, S1 Table) and manganese (Fig 5, S1 Table) for 2 (A,B) and 9 days (C,D) and reared in sea water without metal (A,C) and in sea water containing metal (B,D). The data, obtained by Real Time qPCR, were normalized using as reference gene Pl-Z12-1 and expressed with respect to the control values, offspring of females kept during the whole experimental period in sea water without addition of metals.


Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

Migliaccio O, Castellano I, Cirino P, Romano G, Palumbo A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Gene expression analysis in the progeny of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium 10−6 M for 2 days (A,B) and 9 days (C,D).The embryos were reared in sea water (A,C) and in cadmium-containing sea water (B,D). Data are reported as a fold difference in the expression levels of the analyzed genes, compared to controls (mean ± SD), offspring of females kept during the whole experimental period in sea water without addition of metal. Fold differences equal or greater than ± 2 (see horizontal guidelines at values of 2 and—2) were considered significant. Experiments were repeated at least on 3 biological replicates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488381&req=5

pone.0131815.g004: Gene expression analysis in the progeny of P. lividus females exposed to cadmium 10−6 M for 2 days (A,B) and 9 days (C,D).The embryos were reared in sea water (A,C) and in cadmium-containing sea water (B,D). Data are reported as a fold difference in the expression levels of the analyzed genes, compared to controls (mean ± SD), offspring of females kept during the whole experimental period in sea water without addition of metal. Fold differences equal or greater than ± 2 (see horizontal guidelines at values of 2 and—2) were considered significant. Experiments were repeated at least on 3 biological replicates.
Mentions: Further experiments were performed to evaluate possible variation in the expression of genes involved in several processes, such as stress response (heat shock proteins hsp70, hsp60 and hsp56), skeletogenesis (spicule matrix proteins sm30, sm50 and msp130, the growth factor bmp5-7, the proteins involved in skeleton formation p16 and p19, the fibroblast growth factor fg9/16/20), detoxification (metallothioneins mt4, mt5, mt6, mt7 and mt8), multidrug efflux (abc transporter abc1b, abc4a, abc8b, abc1a) and NO production (nos). Their expression was followed at the different developmental stages in the offspring of females exposed to cadmium (Fig 4, S1 Table) and manganese (Fig 5, S1 Table) for 2 (A,B) and 9 days (C,D) and reared in sea water without metal (A,C) and in sea water containing metal (B,D). The data, obtained by Real Time qPCR, were normalized using as reference gene Pl-Z12-1 and expressed with respect to the control values, offspring of females kept during the whole experimental period in sea water without addition of metals.

Bottom Line: The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression.Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water.Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus