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Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

Migliaccio O, Castellano I, Cirino P, Romano G, Palumbo A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression.Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water.Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reproductive state and nitric oxide (NO) production in P. lividus females exposed to cadmium and manganese.GSI (A), total NO concentration (B), spawning (C) and fertilization success (D) in females exposed to cadmium (Cd) 10−6 M and manganese (Mn) 3.6 x 10−5 M for 2 and 9 days. Significant differences compared to the controls (sw 2 and 9 days): *P<0.05, ***P<0.001. Two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni’s post test (P<0.05). N = 8.
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pone.0131815.g001: Reproductive state and nitric oxide (NO) production in P. lividus females exposed to cadmium and manganese.GSI (A), total NO concentration (B), spawning (C) and fertilization success (D) in females exposed to cadmium (Cd) 10−6 M and manganese (Mn) 3.6 x 10−5 M for 2 and 9 days. Significant differences compared to the controls (sw 2 and 9 days): *P<0.05, ***P<0.001. Two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni’s post test (P<0.05). N = 8.

Mentions: Selected females were exposed for 2 and 9 days to cadmium 10−6 M and manganese 3.6 x 10−5 M. These metal concentrations were shown to be sublethal for developing P. lividus embryos, inducing a small percentage of abnormal plutei (28–29%) after treatment of fertilized eggs [10]. Then, the reproductive state was assessed by determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), spawning and fertilization success. Moreover, NO content was measured in the ovaries as total nitrite by Griess assay. The exposure of sea urchin females to cadmium for 2 days caused a significant reduction in spawning (Fig 1C), fertilization success (Fig 1D) and NO production (Fig 1B), compared to the respective controls, females reared in sea water without metals. No effect was observed on GSI (Fig 1A). After 9 days, all parameters were affected by metal treatment. In particular, a significant reduction in GSI (Fig 1A), NO production (Fig 1B), spawning (Fig 1C) and fertilization success (Fig 1D) was recorded in cadmium-exposed sea urchins compared to the respective controls. Manganese exposure caused a decrease in NO levels at both experimental times (Fig 1B) and only a reduction in spawning after 9 days of treatment (Fig 1C).


Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

Migliaccio O, Castellano I, Cirino P, Romano G, Palumbo A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Reproductive state and nitric oxide (NO) production in P. lividus females exposed to cadmium and manganese.GSI (A), total NO concentration (B), spawning (C) and fertilization success (D) in females exposed to cadmium (Cd) 10−6 M and manganese (Mn) 3.6 x 10−5 M for 2 and 9 days. Significant differences compared to the controls (sw 2 and 9 days): *P<0.05, ***P<0.001. Two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni’s post test (P<0.05). N = 8.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488381&req=5

pone.0131815.g001: Reproductive state and nitric oxide (NO) production in P. lividus females exposed to cadmium and manganese.GSI (A), total NO concentration (B), spawning (C) and fertilization success (D) in females exposed to cadmium (Cd) 10−6 M and manganese (Mn) 3.6 x 10−5 M for 2 and 9 days. Significant differences compared to the controls (sw 2 and 9 days): *P<0.05, ***P<0.001. Two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni’s post test (P<0.05). N = 8.
Mentions: Selected females were exposed for 2 and 9 days to cadmium 10−6 M and manganese 3.6 x 10−5 M. These metal concentrations were shown to be sublethal for developing P. lividus embryos, inducing a small percentage of abnormal plutei (28–29%) after treatment of fertilized eggs [10]. Then, the reproductive state was assessed by determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), spawning and fertilization success. Moreover, NO content was measured in the ovaries as total nitrite by Griess assay. The exposure of sea urchin females to cadmium for 2 days caused a significant reduction in spawning (Fig 1C), fertilization success (Fig 1D) and NO production (Fig 1B), compared to the respective controls, females reared in sea water without metals. No effect was observed on GSI (Fig 1A). After 9 days, all parameters were affected by metal treatment. In particular, a significant reduction in GSI (Fig 1A), NO production (Fig 1B), spawning (Fig 1C) and fertilization success (Fig 1D) was recorded in cadmium-exposed sea urchins compared to the respective controls. Manganese exposure caused a decrease in NO levels at both experimental times (Fig 1B) and only a reduction in spawning after 9 days of treatment (Fig 1C).

Bottom Line: The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression.Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water.Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus