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Shaped by the Past: The Default Mode Network Supports Cognition that Is Independent of Immediate Perceptual Input.

Konishi M, McLaren DG, Engen H, Smallwood J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Although many different accounts of the functions of the default mode network (DMN) have been proposed, few can adequately account for the spectrum of different cognitive functions that utilize this network.Instead the involvement of the DMN when people make decisions about where a shape was, rather than where it is now, supports the hypothesis that the core hubs of the DMN allow cognition to be guided by information other than the immediate perceptual input.We propose that a variety of different forms of higher order thought (such as imagining the future or considering the perspective of another person) engage the DMN because these more complex introspective forms of higher order thought all depend on the capacity for cognition to be shaped by representations that are not present in the external environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology & York Neuroimaging Centre, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although many different accounts of the functions of the default mode network (DMN) have been proposed, few can adequately account for the spectrum of different cognitive functions that utilize this network. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the hypothesis that the role of the DMN in higher order cognition is to allow cognition to be shaped by information from stored representations rather than information in the immediate environment. Using a novel task paradigm, we observed increased BOLD activity in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes from the prior trial and decreased BOLD activity when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes on the current trial. These data are inconsistent with views of the DMN as a task-negative system or one that is sensitive only to stimuli with strong personal or emotional ties. Instead the involvement of the DMN when people make decisions about where a shape was, rather than where it is now, supports the hypothesis that the core hubs of the DMN allow cognition to be guided by information other than the immediate perceptual input. We propose that a variety of different forms of higher order thought (such as imagining the future or considering the perspective of another person) engage the DMN because these more complex introspective forms of higher order thought all depend on the capacity for cognition to be shaped by representations that are not present in the external environment.

No MeSH data available.


Transient changes with the Default mode network.We repeated the analysis using a mask of the DMN created using functional connectivity from a sample of 39 healthy participants. This analysis revealed clusters in the posterior cingulate cortex, regions of the ventral and dorso-medial pre-frontal cortex and the right tempo parietal junction. To identify whether these clusters of activity constituted increases in activity in the 1-back task we extracted the beta weights for each and plotted the group averages. These images were created using a cluster forming threshold of p < .01 and multiple comparisons were controlled for using topological FDR (p < .05). The image used as a mask is presented in the sub-panel.
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pone.0132209.g005: Transient changes with the Default mode network.We repeated the analysis using a mask of the DMN created using functional connectivity from a sample of 39 healthy participants. This analysis revealed clusters in the posterior cingulate cortex, regions of the ventral and dorso-medial pre-frontal cortex and the right tempo parietal junction. To identify whether these clusters of activity constituted increases in activity in the 1-back task we extracted the beta weights for each and plotted the group averages. These images were created using a cluster forming threshold of p < .01 and multiple comparisons were controlled for using topological FDR (p < .05). The image used as a mask is presented in the sub-panel.

Mentions: We repeated the one-sample t-tests reported above using our mask of the DMN (see Fig 5). We found that regions of the precuneus (Prec), the PCC, the mPFC and regions of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) exhibited greater transient activity for correct responses to the 1-back than the 0-back targets (see Fig 5). Similarly, regions of the PCC, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left middle temporal gyrus (L. MTG) and the hippocampus (Hipp.) exhibited greater sustained activity in the 0-back than the 1-back task (see Fig 6). To demonstrate that these transient and sustained changes constitute increases in the BOLD signal we extracted beta weights from each cluster using the rfxplot toolbox for SPM (Figs 5 and 6).


Shaped by the Past: The Default Mode Network Supports Cognition that Is Independent of Immediate Perceptual Input.

Konishi M, McLaren DG, Engen H, Smallwood J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Transient changes with the Default mode network.We repeated the analysis using a mask of the DMN created using functional connectivity from a sample of 39 healthy participants. This analysis revealed clusters in the posterior cingulate cortex, regions of the ventral and dorso-medial pre-frontal cortex and the right tempo parietal junction. To identify whether these clusters of activity constituted increases in activity in the 1-back task we extracted the beta weights for each and plotted the group averages. These images were created using a cluster forming threshold of p < .01 and multiple comparisons were controlled for using topological FDR (p < .05). The image used as a mask is presented in the sub-panel.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488375&req=5

pone.0132209.g005: Transient changes with the Default mode network.We repeated the analysis using a mask of the DMN created using functional connectivity from a sample of 39 healthy participants. This analysis revealed clusters in the posterior cingulate cortex, regions of the ventral and dorso-medial pre-frontal cortex and the right tempo parietal junction. To identify whether these clusters of activity constituted increases in activity in the 1-back task we extracted the beta weights for each and plotted the group averages. These images were created using a cluster forming threshold of p < .01 and multiple comparisons were controlled for using topological FDR (p < .05). The image used as a mask is presented in the sub-panel.
Mentions: We repeated the one-sample t-tests reported above using our mask of the DMN (see Fig 5). We found that regions of the precuneus (Prec), the PCC, the mPFC and regions of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) exhibited greater transient activity for correct responses to the 1-back than the 0-back targets (see Fig 5). Similarly, regions of the PCC, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left middle temporal gyrus (L. MTG) and the hippocampus (Hipp.) exhibited greater sustained activity in the 0-back than the 1-back task (see Fig 6). To demonstrate that these transient and sustained changes constitute increases in the BOLD signal we extracted beta weights from each cluster using the rfxplot toolbox for SPM (Figs 5 and 6).

Bottom Line: Although many different accounts of the functions of the default mode network (DMN) have been proposed, few can adequately account for the spectrum of different cognitive functions that utilize this network.Instead the involvement of the DMN when people make decisions about where a shape was, rather than where it is now, supports the hypothesis that the core hubs of the DMN allow cognition to be guided by information other than the immediate perceptual input.We propose that a variety of different forms of higher order thought (such as imagining the future or considering the perspective of another person) engage the DMN because these more complex introspective forms of higher order thought all depend on the capacity for cognition to be shaped by representations that are not present in the external environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology & York Neuroimaging Centre, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although many different accounts of the functions of the default mode network (DMN) have been proposed, few can adequately account for the spectrum of different cognitive functions that utilize this network. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the hypothesis that the role of the DMN in higher order cognition is to allow cognition to be shaped by information from stored representations rather than information in the immediate environment. Using a novel task paradigm, we observed increased BOLD activity in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes from the prior trial and decreased BOLD activity when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes on the current trial. These data are inconsistent with views of the DMN as a task-negative system or one that is sensitive only to stimuli with strong personal or emotional ties. Instead the involvement of the DMN when people make decisions about where a shape was, rather than where it is now, supports the hypothesis that the core hubs of the DMN allow cognition to be guided by information other than the immediate perceptual input. We propose that a variety of different forms of higher order thought (such as imagining the future or considering the perspective of another person) engage the DMN because these more complex introspective forms of higher order thought all depend on the capacity for cognition to be shaped by representations that are not present in the external environment.

No MeSH data available.