Limits...
Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals.

Will M, Mackay A, Phillips N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups.Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations.Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, University of Tubingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Levallois points with Nubian characteristic from UPK7 and Mertenhof.UPK7: a, quartzite; b-d, silcrete; Mertenhof: f & g, both silcrete. White arrows show directions of preparation removals. Overshot flake from Nubian-like core (e, silcrete). Inset images for Mertenhof points show damage immediately below flake platforms.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488358&req=5

pone.0131824.g009: Levallois points with Nubian characteristic from UPK7 and Mertenhof.UPK7: a, quartzite; b-d, silcrete; Mertenhof: f & g, both silcrete. White arrows show directions of preparation removals. Overshot flake from Nubian-like core (e, silcrete). Inset images for Mertenhof points show damage immediately below flake platforms.

Mentions: In addition to the Nubian cores, products deriving from this reduction system occur at UPK7 (n = 14; Fig 9). These convergent flakes show negatives from type 2 or type 1/2 Nubian preparation with facetted platforms, exterior platform angles close to 90° and feathered terminations on all edges. The mean length of the last removals on the cores´ working surfaces (35.4 mm) attests to the production of predominantly small convergent flakes at UPK7, particularly for silcrete and chert. Furthermore, three overshot flakes preserve the distal and lateral core preparation matching the existence of overshot removal negatives on two of the cores in our sample (Fig 7c). These products confirm the in situ exploitation and subsequent discard of Nubian-like cores.


Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals.

Will M, Mackay A, Phillips N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Levallois points with Nubian characteristic from UPK7 and Mertenhof.UPK7: a, quartzite; b-d, silcrete; Mertenhof: f & g, both silcrete. White arrows show directions of preparation removals. Overshot flake from Nubian-like core (e, silcrete). Inset images for Mertenhof points show damage immediately below flake platforms.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488358&req=5

pone.0131824.g009: Levallois points with Nubian characteristic from UPK7 and Mertenhof.UPK7: a, quartzite; b-d, silcrete; Mertenhof: f & g, both silcrete. White arrows show directions of preparation removals. Overshot flake from Nubian-like core (e, silcrete). Inset images for Mertenhof points show damage immediately below flake platforms.
Mentions: In addition to the Nubian cores, products deriving from this reduction system occur at UPK7 (n = 14; Fig 9). These convergent flakes show negatives from type 2 or type 1/2 Nubian preparation with facetted platforms, exterior platform angles close to 90° and feathered terminations on all edges. The mean length of the last removals on the cores´ working surfaces (35.4 mm) attests to the production of predominantly small convergent flakes at UPK7, particularly for silcrete and chert. Furthermore, three overshot flakes preserve the distal and lateral core preparation matching the existence of overshot removal negatives on two of the cores in our sample (Fig 7c). These products confirm the in situ exploitation and subsequent discard of Nubian-like cores.

Bottom Line: Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups.Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations.Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, University of Tubingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus