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Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras.

Alvarez M, Reynaert N, Chávez MN, Aedo G, Araya F, Hopfner U, Fernández J, Allende ML, Egaña JT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life.Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish.This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FONDAP Center for Genome Regulation, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Embryo survival after injection of algae.In order to evaluate the effect of algae in the embryo survival 3 different concentrations of C. reinhardtii (Low: 750 algae/ μl; medium: 2,500 algae/ μl and high: 10,000 algae/ μl) were injected into zebrafish embryos at 0 hpf (A) and 24 hpf (B). In both embryonic stages, results show a significant decrease in embryo survival with increasing concentrations of algae (C). In most cases a significant mortality was observed only the first days after injection. Error bar represents SEM. ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p≤ 0.001. n = 90 per group.
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pone.0130295.g001: Embryo survival after injection of algae.In order to evaluate the effect of algae in the embryo survival 3 different concentrations of C. reinhardtii (Low: 750 algae/ μl; medium: 2,500 algae/ μl and high: 10,000 algae/ μl) were injected into zebrafish embryos at 0 hpf (A) and 24 hpf (B). In both embryonic stages, results show a significant decrease in embryo survival with increasing concentrations of algae (C). In most cases a significant mortality was observed only the first days after injection. Error bar represents SEM. ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p≤ 0.001. n = 90 per group.

Mentions: Our first goal was to optimize the amount of algae injected in early stage zebrafish embryos. For this purpose, suspensions of C. reinhardtii cells were microinjected into 0 hpf or 24 hpf zebrafish at concentrations of 750, 2,500 and 10,000 algae/ μL. In addition, mock-injected (only algae medium) fish were used as controls. Observation of embryos showed that their mortality was proportional to the concentration of microinjected algae at both stages and occurs only within the first 2 days post injection (Fig 1). At the lowest concentration (750 algae/ μL), no difference in embryos survival was observed between 0 hpf and 24 hpf injected groups. In contrast, when algae were injected in concentrations of 2,500 and 10,000 algae/ μL, a significantly higher survival rate was observed for the 24 hpf group (Fig 1C).


Generation of Viable Plant-Vertebrate Chimeras.

Alvarez M, Reynaert N, Chávez MN, Aedo G, Araya F, Hopfner U, Fernández J, Allende ML, Egaña JT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Embryo survival after injection of algae.In order to evaluate the effect of algae in the embryo survival 3 different concentrations of C. reinhardtii (Low: 750 algae/ μl; medium: 2,500 algae/ μl and high: 10,000 algae/ μl) were injected into zebrafish embryos at 0 hpf (A) and 24 hpf (B). In both embryonic stages, results show a significant decrease in embryo survival with increasing concentrations of algae (C). In most cases a significant mortality was observed only the first days after injection. Error bar represents SEM. ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p≤ 0.001. n = 90 per group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488345&req=5

pone.0130295.g001: Embryo survival after injection of algae.In order to evaluate the effect of algae in the embryo survival 3 different concentrations of C. reinhardtii (Low: 750 algae/ μl; medium: 2,500 algae/ μl and high: 10,000 algae/ μl) were injected into zebrafish embryos at 0 hpf (A) and 24 hpf (B). In both embryonic stages, results show a significant decrease in embryo survival with increasing concentrations of algae (C). In most cases a significant mortality was observed only the first days after injection. Error bar represents SEM. ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p≤ 0.001. n = 90 per group.
Mentions: Our first goal was to optimize the amount of algae injected in early stage zebrafish embryos. For this purpose, suspensions of C. reinhardtii cells were microinjected into 0 hpf or 24 hpf zebrafish at concentrations of 750, 2,500 and 10,000 algae/ μL. In addition, mock-injected (only algae medium) fish were used as controls. Observation of embryos showed that their mortality was proportional to the concentration of microinjected algae at both stages and occurs only within the first 2 days post injection (Fig 1). At the lowest concentration (750 algae/ μL), no difference in embryos survival was observed between 0 hpf and 24 hpf injected groups. In contrast, when algae were injected in concentrations of 2,500 and 10,000 algae/ μL, a significantly higher survival rate was observed for the 24 hpf group (Fig 1C).

Bottom Line: The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life.Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish.This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FONDAP Center for Genome Regulation, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The extreme dependence on external oxygen supply observed in animals causes major clinical problems and several diseases are related to low oxygen tension in tissues. The vast majority of the animals do not produce oxygen but a few exceptions have shown that photosynthetic capacity is physiologically compatible with animal life. Such symbiotic photosynthetic relationships are restricted to a few aquatic invertebrates. In this work we aimed to explore if we could create a chimerical organism by incorporating photosynthetic eukaryotic cells into a vertebrate animal model. Here, the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was injected into zebrafish eggs and the interaction and viability of both organisms were studied. Results show that microalgae were distributed into different tissues, forming a fish-alga chimera organism for a prolonged period of time. In addition, microscopic observation of injected algae, in vivo expression of their mRNA and re-growth of the algae ex vivo suggests that they survived to the developmental process, living for several days after injection. Moreover microalgae did not trigger a significant inflammatory response in the fish. This work provides additional evidence to support the possibility that photosynthetic vertebrates can be engineered.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus