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Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

Kim H, Wang Q, Shoemaker CF, Zhong F, Bartley GE, Yokoyama WH - J Tradit Complement Med (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control.Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group.These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA ; Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Brasenia schreberi ( chún cài) is an invasive aquatic weed found in the USA, but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose, and other monosaccharides. Because some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated their cholesterol-lowering properties in male hamsters fed hypercholesterolemic diets containing 2% gel coat from B. schreberi (GEL), or 1% cholestyramine (CA), or 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and compared them to 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 3 weeks. We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was lowered by CA and HPMC. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weight of GEL and control group animals were greater than those of the CA and HPMC groups. Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group. Expression of hepatic CYP51 and CYP7A1 mRNA was upregulated by CA, HPMC, and GEL, indicating increased hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was upregulated by all treatments. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Table of Contents (TOC) graphic. Note. The TOC graphic was obtained from Robert H. Mohlenbrock (USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA NRCS. Northeast Wetland Flora: Field Office Guide to Plant Species. Chester: Northeast National Technical Center; 1995).
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fig4: Table of Contents (TOC) graphic. Note. The TOC graphic was obtained from Robert H. Mohlenbrock (USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA NRCS. Northeast Wetland Flora: Field Office Guide to Plant Species. Chester: Northeast National Technical Center; 1995).

Mentions: Expression of hepatic genes related to bile acid synthesis including CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase) and FXRα (farnesoid X receptor) was upregulated by 16- and 1.5-fold, respectively, by feeding the GEL diet (Fig. 3). The mRNA level of the hepatic gene that regulates cholesterol synthesis, CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase), was upregulated by 2.6-fold by GEL compared to control (Fig. 3). The expression level of LDL receptor was upregulated by 1.8-fold, whereas mRNA level of the sterol transporter protein, ABCG5 [ATP binding cassette (ABC) half-transporter], in the GEL diet was downregulated by 3.3-fold compared to the control diet (Fig. 3). Hepatic mRNA profiles of the CA and HPMC diets showed a similar pattern of gene expression to that of the GEL diet (Fig. 3). The expression level of toll-like receptor-4 in the adipose tissue was downregulated by the GEL and CA diets by 0.4- and 0.6-fold, respectively, compared to the control diet (data not shown) (Fig. 4).


Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

Kim H, Wang Q, Shoemaker CF, Zhong F, Bartley GE, Yokoyama WH - J Tradit Complement Med (2014)

Table of Contents (TOC) graphic. Note. The TOC graphic was obtained from Robert H. Mohlenbrock (USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA NRCS. Northeast Wetland Flora: Field Office Guide to Plant Species. Chester: Northeast National Technical Center; 1995).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488095&req=5

fig4: Table of Contents (TOC) graphic. Note. The TOC graphic was obtained from Robert H. Mohlenbrock (USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA NRCS. Northeast Wetland Flora: Field Office Guide to Plant Species. Chester: Northeast National Technical Center; 1995).
Mentions: Expression of hepatic genes related to bile acid synthesis including CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase) and FXRα (farnesoid X receptor) was upregulated by 16- and 1.5-fold, respectively, by feeding the GEL diet (Fig. 3). The mRNA level of the hepatic gene that regulates cholesterol synthesis, CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase), was upregulated by 2.6-fold by GEL compared to control (Fig. 3). The expression level of LDL receptor was upregulated by 1.8-fold, whereas mRNA level of the sterol transporter protein, ABCG5 [ATP binding cassette (ABC) half-transporter], in the GEL diet was downregulated by 3.3-fold compared to the control diet (Fig. 3). Hepatic mRNA profiles of the CA and HPMC diets showed a similar pattern of gene expression to that of the GEL diet (Fig. 3). The expression level of toll-like receptor-4 in the adipose tissue was downregulated by the GEL and CA diets by 0.4- and 0.6-fold, respectively, compared to the control diet (data not shown) (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control.Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group.These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA ; Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Brasenia schreberi ( chún cài) is an invasive aquatic weed found in the USA, but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose, and other monosaccharides. Because some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated their cholesterol-lowering properties in male hamsters fed hypercholesterolemic diets containing 2% gel coat from B. schreberi (GEL), or 1% cholestyramine (CA), or 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and compared them to 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 3 weeks. We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was lowered by CA and HPMC. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weight of GEL and control group animals were greater than those of the CA and HPMC groups. Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group. Expression of hepatic CYP51 and CYP7A1 mRNA was upregulated by CA, HPMC, and GEL, indicating increased hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was upregulated by all treatments. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus