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Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

Kim H, Wang Q, Shoemaker CF, Zhong F, Bartley GE, Yokoyama WH - J Tradit Complement Med (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control.Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group.These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA ; Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Brasenia schreberi ( chún cài) is an invasive aquatic weed found in the USA, but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose, and other monosaccharides. Because some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated their cholesterol-lowering properties in male hamsters fed hypercholesterolemic diets containing 2% gel coat from B. schreberi (GEL), or 1% cholestyramine (CA), or 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and compared them to 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 3 weeks. We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was lowered by CA and HPMC. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weight of GEL and control group animals were greater than those of the CA and HPMC groups. Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group. Expression of hepatic CYP51 and CYP7A1 mRNA was upregulated by CA, HPMC, and GEL, indicating increased hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was upregulated by all treatments. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gas chromatogram of elution of acetylated glucitol derivative of acid-hydrolyzed polysaccharide from Brasenia schreberi. The peaks correspond to galactose (17.4 minutes), mannose (16.1 minutes), fucose (11.6 minutes), rhamnose (10.9 minutes), arabinose (11.9 minutes), xylose (12.5 minutes), and glucose (17.8 minutes).
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fig1: Gas chromatogram of elution of acetylated glucitol derivative of acid-hydrolyzed polysaccharide from Brasenia schreberi. The peaks correspond to galactose (17.4 minutes), mannose (16.1 minutes), fucose (11.6 minutes), rhamnose (10.9 minutes), arabinose (11.9 minutes), xylose (12.5 minutes), and glucose (17.8 minutes).

Mentions: Monosaccharide composition and retention times of the exopolysaccharide coating the leaf of B. schreberi determined by gas chromatography are shown in Fig. 1; the exopolysaccharide coating contained galactose (25.2%; peak at 17.4 minutes), mannose (1.6%; peak at 16.1 minutes), fucose (6.9%; peak at 11.6 minutes), rhamnose (7.6%; peak at 10.9 minutes), arabinose (3.1%; peak at 11.9 minutes), xylose (5.5%; peak at 12.5 minutes), glucose (2.1%; peak at 17.8 minutes), and alduronic acids (19.6%).


Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

Kim H, Wang Q, Shoemaker CF, Zhong F, Bartley GE, Yokoyama WH - J Tradit Complement Med (2014)

Gas chromatogram of elution of acetylated glucitol derivative of acid-hydrolyzed polysaccharide from Brasenia schreberi. The peaks correspond to galactose (17.4 minutes), mannose (16.1 minutes), fucose (11.6 minutes), rhamnose (10.9 minutes), arabinose (11.9 minutes), xylose (12.5 minutes), and glucose (17.8 minutes).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488095&req=5

fig1: Gas chromatogram of elution of acetylated glucitol derivative of acid-hydrolyzed polysaccharide from Brasenia schreberi. The peaks correspond to galactose (17.4 minutes), mannose (16.1 minutes), fucose (11.6 minutes), rhamnose (10.9 minutes), arabinose (11.9 minutes), xylose (12.5 minutes), and glucose (17.8 minutes).
Mentions: Monosaccharide composition and retention times of the exopolysaccharide coating the leaf of B. schreberi determined by gas chromatography are shown in Fig. 1; the exopolysaccharide coating contained galactose (25.2%; peak at 17.4 minutes), mannose (1.6%; peak at 16.1 minutes), fucose (6.9%; peak at 11.6 minutes), rhamnose (7.6%; peak at 10.9 minutes), arabinose (3.1%; peak at 11.9 minutes), xylose (5.5%; peak at 12.5 minutes), glucose (2.1%; peak at 17.8 minutes), and alduronic acids (19.6%).

Bottom Line: We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control.Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group.These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA ; Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Brasenia schreberi ( chún cài) is an invasive aquatic weed found in the USA, but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose, and other monosaccharides. Because some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated their cholesterol-lowering properties in male hamsters fed hypercholesterolemic diets containing 2% gel coat from B. schreberi (GEL), or 1% cholestyramine (CA), or 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and compared them to 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 3 weeks. We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was lowered by CA and HPMC. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weight of GEL and control group animals were greater than those of the CA and HPMC groups. Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group. Expression of hepatic CYP51 and CYP7A1 mRNA was upregulated by CA, HPMC, and GEL, indicating increased hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was upregulated by all treatments. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus