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Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

Wang WJ, Wu YS, Chen S, Liu CF, Chen SN - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung.In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments.Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Da' an District, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan on the percentages of macrophages and proportions of M1 and M2 macrophages. Normal mice were fed with distilled water or Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan daily and euthanized after 12 days. Lungs were then harvested (n = 5). Flow cytometer was used to analyze the percentages of M1 and M2 macrophages in the lungs. (a) Percentages of macrophages. (b) Percentages of M1 macrophages. (c) Percentages of M2 macrophages. *Group PC: fed with twice-distilled water; group PB: fed with Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan.
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fig4: Effect of Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan on the percentages of macrophages and proportions of M1 and M2 macrophages. Normal mice were fed with distilled water or Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan daily and euthanized after 12 days. Lungs were then harvested (n = 5). Flow cytometer was used to analyze the percentages of M1 and M2 macrophages in the lungs. (a) Percentages of macrophages. (b) Percentages of M1 macrophages. (c) Percentages of M2 macrophages. *Group PC: fed with twice-distilled water; group PB: fed with Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan.

Mentions: As results shown in Figure 2(a), the amounts of IL-12 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is at 0.0019 ± 0.00025, and group PC is lower at 0.0014 ± 0.00025. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB (P > 0.05). As results shown in Figure 2(b), the amounts of GM-CSF gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is at 39.3786 ± 6.90311,, and group PC is at 29.5757 ± 5.17426. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB (P > 0.05). As results shown in Figure 2(c), the amounts of IFN-γ gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is at 1.9469 ± 0.37199, and group PC is at 0.5895 ± 0.14802. The quantity of IFN-γ gene expression of group PB is statistically significantly higher than that of group PC (P < 0.05). As results shown in Figure 3(a), the amounts of M-CSF gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PC is higher at 0.5285 ± 0.07916, and group PB is lower at 0.5012 ± 0.04078. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 3(b), the amounts of IL-6 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is higher at 0.1297 ± 0.03755, and group PC is lower at 0.1208 ± 0.03685. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 3(c), the amounts of IL-10 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is higher at 0.0036 ± 0.00005, and group PC is lower at 0.0035 ± 0.00107. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 3(d), the amounts of COX-2 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PC is higher at 0.0038 ± 0.00087, and group PB is lower at 0.0021 ± 0.00057. The quantity of COX-2 gene expression of group PB is statistically significantly lower than PC group (P < 0.05). As results shown in Figure 3(e), the amounts of TGF-β gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PC is higher at 2.1539 ± 0.5294, and group PB is lower at 1.6817 ± 0.07353. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. Results shown in Figure 4(a) demonstrated higher group PC value at 36.32 ± 3.458% and lower group PB value at 35 ± 7.291%. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB in the lung M1 macrophage percentages. As results shown in Figure 4(b), percentages of M1 macrophages in the lung tissues of normal mice are higher in PB group at 4.41 ± 0.956% and lower in group PC at 3.33 ± 0.668%. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 4(c) for the percentages of M2 macrophage in the lung tissues, group PC is higher at 30.28 ± 1.612%, and group PB is lower at 25.86 ± 3.95%. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB.


Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

Wang WJ, Wu YS, Chen S, Liu CF, Chen SN - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Effect of Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan on the percentages of macrophages and proportions of M1 and M2 macrophages. Normal mice were fed with distilled water or Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan daily and euthanized after 12 days. Lungs were then harvested (n = 5). Flow cytometer was used to analyze the percentages of M1 and M2 macrophages in the lungs. (a) Percentages of macrophages. (b) Percentages of M1 macrophages. (c) Percentages of M2 macrophages. *Group PC: fed with twice-distilled water; group PB: fed with Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4488085&req=5

fig4: Effect of Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan on the percentages of macrophages and proportions of M1 and M2 macrophages. Normal mice were fed with distilled water or Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan daily and euthanized after 12 days. Lungs were then harvested (n = 5). Flow cytometer was used to analyze the percentages of M1 and M2 macrophages in the lungs. (a) Percentages of macrophages. (b) Percentages of M1 macrophages. (c) Percentages of M2 macrophages. *Group PC: fed with twice-distilled water; group PB: fed with Antrodia camphorata beta-glucan.
Mentions: As results shown in Figure 2(a), the amounts of IL-12 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is at 0.0019 ± 0.00025, and group PC is lower at 0.0014 ± 0.00025. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB (P > 0.05). As results shown in Figure 2(b), the amounts of GM-CSF gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is at 39.3786 ± 6.90311,, and group PC is at 29.5757 ± 5.17426. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB (P > 0.05). As results shown in Figure 2(c), the amounts of IFN-γ gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is at 1.9469 ± 0.37199, and group PC is at 0.5895 ± 0.14802. The quantity of IFN-γ gene expression of group PB is statistically significantly higher than that of group PC (P < 0.05). As results shown in Figure 3(a), the amounts of M-CSF gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PC is higher at 0.5285 ± 0.07916, and group PB is lower at 0.5012 ± 0.04078. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 3(b), the amounts of IL-6 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is higher at 0.1297 ± 0.03755, and group PC is lower at 0.1208 ± 0.03685. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 3(c), the amounts of IL-10 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PB is higher at 0.0036 ± 0.00005, and group PC is lower at 0.0035 ± 0.00107. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 3(d), the amounts of COX-2 gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PC is higher at 0.0038 ± 0.00087, and group PB is lower at 0.0021 ± 0.00057. The quantity of COX-2 gene expression of group PB is statistically significantly lower than PC group (P < 0.05). As results shown in Figure 3(e), the amounts of TGF-β gene expression in the lungs of normal mice are as follows: group PC is higher at 2.1539 ± 0.5294, and group PB is lower at 1.6817 ± 0.07353. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. Results shown in Figure 4(a) demonstrated higher group PC value at 36.32 ± 3.458% and lower group PB value at 35 ± 7.291%. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB in the lung M1 macrophage percentages. As results shown in Figure 4(b), percentages of M1 macrophages in the lung tissues of normal mice are higher in PB group at 4.41 ± 0.956% and lower in group PC at 3.33 ± 0.668%. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB. As results shown in Figure 4(c) for the percentages of M2 macrophage in the lung tissues, group PC is higher at 30.28 ± 1.612%, and group PB is lower at 25.86 ± 3.95%. There is no statistical significant difference between groups PC and PB.

Bottom Line: The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung.In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments.Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Da' an District, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus