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Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice.

Kim CG, Kang M, Lee YH, Min WG, Kim YH, Kang SJ, Song CH, Park SJ, Park JH, Han CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated.However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems.These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological Oceanography & Marine Biology Division, KIOST, Ansan 426-744, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Body weights changes during 6 weeks of continuous bathing on seawaters or topical application of DEXA in DNCB-induced AD mice. Significant (p < 0.01) decreases of body weights were demonstrated in DNCB control mice at 6 and 7 days after initial DNCB sensitization as compared with intact vehicle control mice (a, b), but significantly (p < 0.05) increased body weights were transiently noticed at 3 weeks after first DNCB boosting in DNCB control mice as compared with intact vehicle control mice (c). In addition, topical application of 1% DEXA and bathing on the all four different seawaters also did not influence the body weights as compared with those of DNCB control mice, throughout all experimental periods. Values are expressed as mean ± SD of eight hairless mice. AD = allergic/atopic-like dermatitis; DNCB = 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; DEXA = dexamethasone-water soluble; WSSW = west surface seawater collected around Wepo-ri (Ganghwa-do, Republic of Korea); WSGW = west saline groundwater collected at Yonggungoncheon (Seokmo-do, Republic of Korea); ESSW = east surface seawater collected around Nagok-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea); ESGW = east saline groundwater collected around Hoojeong-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea). Before mean 1 day before initial DNCB sensitization application; the day of 7 means start day of DNCB sensitization; the day of 35 means start day of bathing or topical treatment of DEXA. All animals were overnight fasted before sacrifice (arrow).
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fig2: Body weights changes during 6 weeks of continuous bathing on seawaters or topical application of DEXA in DNCB-induced AD mice. Significant (p < 0.01) decreases of body weights were demonstrated in DNCB control mice at 6 and 7 days after initial DNCB sensitization as compared with intact vehicle control mice (a, b), but significantly (p < 0.05) increased body weights were transiently noticed at 3 weeks after first DNCB boosting in DNCB control mice as compared with intact vehicle control mice (c). In addition, topical application of 1% DEXA and bathing on the all four different seawaters also did not influence the body weights as compared with those of DNCB control mice, throughout all experimental periods. Values are expressed as mean ± SD of eight hairless mice. AD = allergic/atopic-like dermatitis; DNCB = 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; DEXA = dexamethasone-water soluble; WSSW = west surface seawater collected around Wepo-ri (Ganghwa-do, Republic of Korea); WSGW = west saline groundwater collected at Yonggungoncheon (Seokmo-do, Republic of Korea); ESSW = east surface seawater collected around Nagok-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea); ESGW = east saline groundwater collected around Hoojeong-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea). Before mean 1 day before initial DNCB sensitization application; the day of 7 means start day of DNCB sensitization; the day of 35 means start day of bathing or topical treatment of DEXA. All animals were overnight fasted before sacrifice (arrow).

Mentions: Significantly lower body weights were demonstrated in DNCB control mice at 6 and 7 days after initial DNCB sensitization than in intact vehicle control mice (p < 0.01), but significantly higher body weights were transiently noticed at 3 weeks after the first DNCB boosting in DNCB control mice than in intact vehicle control mice (p < 0.05). Therefore, there were no significant changes in body weight gain during the total 11-week experimental period or during the 6-week bathing periods between DNCB control mice and intact vehicle control mice. In addition, neither topical application of 1% dexamethasone (DEXA) nor bathing with all four seawaters influenced the body weight or body weight gain compared to the DNCB control mice throughout the entire experimental period (Figure 2).


Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice.

Kim CG, Kang M, Lee YH, Min WG, Kim YH, Kang SJ, Song CH, Park SJ, Park JH, Han CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Body weights changes during 6 weeks of continuous bathing on seawaters or topical application of DEXA in DNCB-induced AD mice. Significant (p < 0.01) decreases of body weights were demonstrated in DNCB control mice at 6 and 7 days after initial DNCB sensitization as compared with intact vehicle control mice (a, b), but significantly (p < 0.05) increased body weights were transiently noticed at 3 weeks after first DNCB boosting in DNCB control mice as compared with intact vehicle control mice (c). In addition, topical application of 1% DEXA and bathing on the all four different seawaters also did not influence the body weights as compared with those of DNCB control mice, throughout all experimental periods. Values are expressed as mean ± SD of eight hairless mice. AD = allergic/atopic-like dermatitis; DNCB = 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; DEXA = dexamethasone-water soluble; WSSW = west surface seawater collected around Wepo-ri (Ganghwa-do, Republic of Korea); WSGW = west saline groundwater collected at Yonggungoncheon (Seokmo-do, Republic of Korea); ESSW = east surface seawater collected around Nagok-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea); ESGW = east saline groundwater collected around Hoojeong-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea). Before mean 1 day before initial DNCB sensitization application; the day of 7 means start day of DNCB sensitization; the day of 35 means start day of bathing or topical treatment of DEXA. All animals were overnight fasted before sacrifice (arrow).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig2: Body weights changes during 6 weeks of continuous bathing on seawaters or topical application of DEXA in DNCB-induced AD mice. Significant (p < 0.01) decreases of body weights were demonstrated in DNCB control mice at 6 and 7 days after initial DNCB sensitization as compared with intact vehicle control mice (a, b), but significantly (p < 0.05) increased body weights were transiently noticed at 3 weeks after first DNCB boosting in DNCB control mice as compared with intact vehicle control mice (c). In addition, topical application of 1% DEXA and bathing on the all four different seawaters also did not influence the body weights as compared with those of DNCB control mice, throughout all experimental periods. Values are expressed as mean ± SD of eight hairless mice. AD = allergic/atopic-like dermatitis; DNCB = 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; DEXA = dexamethasone-water soluble; WSSW = west surface seawater collected around Wepo-ri (Ganghwa-do, Republic of Korea); WSGW = west saline groundwater collected at Yonggungoncheon (Seokmo-do, Republic of Korea); ESSW = east surface seawater collected around Nagok-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea); ESGW = east saline groundwater collected around Hoojeong-ri (Uljin, Republic of Korea). Before mean 1 day before initial DNCB sensitization application; the day of 7 means start day of DNCB sensitization; the day of 35 means start day of bathing or topical treatment of DEXA. All animals were overnight fasted before sacrifice (arrow).
Mentions: Significantly lower body weights were demonstrated in DNCB control mice at 6 and 7 days after initial DNCB sensitization than in intact vehicle control mice (p < 0.01), but significantly higher body weights were transiently noticed at 3 weeks after the first DNCB boosting in DNCB control mice than in intact vehicle control mice (p < 0.05). Therefore, there were no significant changes in body weight gain during the total 11-week experimental period or during the 6-week bathing periods between DNCB control mice and intact vehicle control mice. In addition, neither topical application of 1% dexamethasone (DEXA) nor bathing with all four seawaters influenced the body weight or body weight gain compared to the DNCB control mice throughout the entire experimental period (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated.However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems.These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological Oceanography & Marine Biology Division, KIOST, Ansan 426-744, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus