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Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: role of lipids in early diet.

Cherian G - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching.Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability.In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT
Modern strains of broiler chickens are selected for fast growth and are marketed anywhere from 36 to 49 days after a 21-day incubational period. For a viable healthy chick, all the necessary nutrients required for growth and development must be provided by the hen through the fertilized egg. The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching. Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability. In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo. Due to the unique roles of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in growth, immune health, and development of central nervous system, this review will focus on the role of early exposure to essential fatty acids through maternal diet and hatching egg and its impact on progeny in meat-type broiler chickens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Post-hatch changes in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain tissue of broiler chickens. The chicks hatched from eggs depleted of DHA and were fed either flax oil or fish oil after hatch.**The breeder hen diets provided 16.0 % CP, 3.6 % calcium and 2,728 kcal metabolizable energy/kg. Sunflower oil (3.5 %) was used in breeder hen diet to produce DHA-depleted eggs and chicks. Flax oil or fish oil was included in broiler chick diet at 3.5 % and tocopherol content of the diet was 48.3 μg/g
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Fig4: Post-hatch changes in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain tissue of broiler chickens. The chicks hatched from eggs depleted of DHA and were fed either flax oil or fish oil after hatch.**The breeder hen diets provided 16.0 % CP, 3.6 % calcium and 2,728 kcal metabolizable energy/kg. Sunflower oil (3.5 %) was used in breeder hen diet to produce DHA-depleted eggs and chicks. Flax oil or fish oil was included in broiler chick diet at 3.5 % and tocopherol content of the diet was 48.3 μg/g

Mentions: The accretion of DHA during embryogenesis occurs from maternal sources (egg yolk) and during post hatch period through chick starter diet, similar to maternal plasma (gestation), breast milk or infant formula (postnatal) in the human infant. To test the efficacy of ALA vs. DHA in post hatch diet on maintaining brain DHA, n-3 PUFA depleted eggs were incubated. Hatched chicks were fed either flax seed oil (ALA) or fish oil (DHA). The brain tissue DHA was assessed up to 40 days of growth. Although hens desaturated and elongated ALA, the brain DHA in flax seed oil fed chicks was lower than that of fish oil-fed chicks (Fig. 4). These results may have implication in the diets of lactating women consuming only plant-based n-3 fats (e.g., vegetarians) or those consuming a typical high n-6 Western diet. The diet of pregnant or nursing women in western countries is low in long chain n-3 fatty acids with a wide ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids, and infants are fed formulae deficient in DHA [22]. In addition, the post-natal synthesis of long chain PUFA from C18 precursors is negligible during the first four months following birth [26]. Therefore, a low supply of long chain n-3 PUFA from maternal source (human breast milk) and infant formulae may result in low fetal and neonatal accretion of DHA with possible impairment in brain growth or development.Fig. 4


Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: role of lipids in early diet.

Cherian G - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Post-hatch changes in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain tissue of broiler chickens. The chicks hatched from eggs depleted of DHA and were fed either flax oil or fish oil after hatch.**The breeder hen diets provided 16.0 % CP, 3.6 % calcium and 2,728 kcal metabolizable energy/kg. Sunflower oil (3.5 %) was used in breeder hen diet to produce DHA-depleted eggs and chicks. Flax oil or fish oil was included in broiler chick diet at 3.5 % and tocopherol content of the diet was 48.3 μg/g
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487977&req=5

Fig4: Post-hatch changes in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain tissue of broiler chickens. The chicks hatched from eggs depleted of DHA and were fed either flax oil or fish oil after hatch.**The breeder hen diets provided 16.0 % CP, 3.6 % calcium and 2,728 kcal metabolizable energy/kg. Sunflower oil (3.5 %) was used in breeder hen diet to produce DHA-depleted eggs and chicks. Flax oil or fish oil was included in broiler chick diet at 3.5 % and tocopherol content of the diet was 48.3 μg/g
Mentions: The accretion of DHA during embryogenesis occurs from maternal sources (egg yolk) and during post hatch period through chick starter diet, similar to maternal plasma (gestation), breast milk or infant formula (postnatal) in the human infant. To test the efficacy of ALA vs. DHA in post hatch diet on maintaining brain DHA, n-3 PUFA depleted eggs were incubated. Hatched chicks were fed either flax seed oil (ALA) or fish oil (DHA). The brain tissue DHA was assessed up to 40 days of growth. Although hens desaturated and elongated ALA, the brain DHA in flax seed oil fed chicks was lower than that of fish oil-fed chicks (Fig. 4). These results may have implication in the diets of lactating women consuming only plant-based n-3 fats (e.g., vegetarians) or those consuming a typical high n-6 Western diet. The diet of pregnant or nursing women in western countries is low in long chain n-3 fatty acids with a wide ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids, and infants are fed formulae deficient in DHA [22]. In addition, the post-natal synthesis of long chain PUFA from C18 precursors is negligible during the first four months following birth [26]. Therefore, a low supply of long chain n-3 PUFA from maternal source (human breast milk) and infant formulae may result in low fetal and neonatal accretion of DHA with possible impairment in brain growth or development.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching.Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability.In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT
Modern strains of broiler chickens are selected for fast growth and are marketed anywhere from 36 to 49 days after a 21-day incubational period. For a viable healthy chick, all the necessary nutrients required for growth and development must be provided by the hen through the fertilized egg. The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching. Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability. In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo. Due to the unique roles of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in growth, immune health, and development of central nervous system, this review will focus on the role of early exposure to essential fatty acids through maternal diet and hatching egg and its impact on progeny in meat-type broiler chickens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus