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Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: role of lipids in early diet.

Cherian G - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching.Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability.In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT
Modern strains of broiler chickens are selected for fast growth and are marketed anywhere from 36 to 49 days after a 21-day incubational period. For a viable healthy chick, all the necessary nutrients required for growth and development must be provided by the hen through the fertilized egg. The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching. Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability. In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo. Due to the unique roles of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in growth, immune health, and development of central nervous system, this review will focus on the role of early exposure to essential fatty acids through maternal diet and hatching egg and its impact on progeny in meat-type broiler chickens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acid content of chicks hatched from hens fed a different lipid sources*. See Table 1 Foot note for details on diet composition
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Fig3: Brain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acid content of chicks hatched from hens fed a different lipid sources*. See Table 1 Foot note for details on diet composition

Mentions: There are two sources of omega-3 fats in poultry diets. ALA which is derived from plant-based oils or oil seeds while long chain PUFA (e.g., EPA, DPA, DHA) that are derived from marine oil or algae. Long chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA such as DHA and arachidonic acid are abundant in the central nervous system of avians and constitute over 15 and 10 % of total lipids in newly hatched chicks [24]. It has been shown that chicken embryo preferentially accumulates DHA and arachidonic acid in the brain during the last wk of incubation [25] as observed in the human infants during the last trimester of gestation [23, 26]. Hatching egg was used as a model to test the effect of maternal diet on brain PUFA composition. To test this, different sources of oil (e.g., fish oil, flax, palm, corn or sunflower oil) were added to hen diets (3–3.5 %) and fertilized eggs were incubated. It was observed that chick brain PUFA composition reflected maternal diet. However, DHA was more sensitive to in ovo fatty acid manipulation than arachidonic acid (Fig. 3). Although linseed oil provided ALA (the parent n-3 fatty acid precursor), the DHA was lower than those chicks from hens fed fish oil.Fig. 3


Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: role of lipids in early diet.

Cherian G - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Brain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acid content of chicks hatched from hens fed a different lipid sources*. See Table 1 Foot note for details on diet composition
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487977&req=5

Fig3: Brain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acid content of chicks hatched from hens fed a different lipid sources*. See Table 1 Foot note for details on diet composition
Mentions: There are two sources of omega-3 fats in poultry diets. ALA which is derived from plant-based oils or oil seeds while long chain PUFA (e.g., EPA, DPA, DHA) that are derived from marine oil or algae. Long chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA such as DHA and arachidonic acid are abundant in the central nervous system of avians and constitute over 15 and 10 % of total lipids in newly hatched chicks [24]. It has been shown that chicken embryo preferentially accumulates DHA and arachidonic acid in the brain during the last wk of incubation [25] as observed in the human infants during the last trimester of gestation [23, 26]. Hatching egg was used as a model to test the effect of maternal diet on brain PUFA composition. To test this, different sources of oil (e.g., fish oil, flax, palm, corn or sunflower oil) were added to hen diets (3–3.5 %) and fertilized eggs were incubated. It was observed that chick brain PUFA composition reflected maternal diet. However, DHA was more sensitive to in ovo fatty acid manipulation than arachidonic acid (Fig. 3). Although linseed oil provided ALA (the parent n-3 fatty acid precursor), the DHA was lower than those chicks from hens fed fish oil.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching.Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability.In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT
Modern strains of broiler chickens are selected for fast growth and are marketed anywhere from 36 to 49 days after a 21-day incubational period. For a viable healthy chick, all the necessary nutrients required for growth and development must be provided by the hen through the fertilized egg. The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching. Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability. In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo. Due to the unique roles of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in growth, immune health, and development of central nervous system, this review will focus on the role of early exposure to essential fatty acids through maternal diet and hatching egg and its impact on progeny in meat-type broiler chickens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus