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Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: role of lipids in early diet.

Cherian G - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching.Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability.In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT
Modern strains of broiler chickens are selected for fast growth and are marketed anywhere from 36 to 49 days after a 21-day incubational period. For a viable healthy chick, all the necessary nutrients required for growth and development must be provided by the hen through the fertilized egg. The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching. Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability. In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo. Due to the unique roles of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in growth, immune health, and development of central nervous system, this review will focus on the role of early exposure to essential fatty acids through maternal diet and hatching egg and its impact on progeny in meat-type broiler chickens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pattern of total lipid, triacylglycerol and phospholipid transfer from hatching egg to the chick embryo during incubation*. TL = Total lipid, TAG = Triacylglycerol, PL = Phospholipid, E = embryonic age. *The weight of different lipid components in yolk or in remnant yolk sac (g) from day one of incubation through hatching period. n = 8
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Fig1: Pattern of total lipid, triacylglycerol and phospholipid transfer from hatching egg to the chick embryo during incubation*. TL = Total lipid, TAG = Triacylglycerol, PL = Phospholipid, E = embryonic age. *The weight of different lipid components in yolk or in remnant yolk sac (g) from day one of incubation through hatching period. n = 8

Mentions: The hatching egg is a complex structure which provides physical and nutritional milieu to the embryo to sustain its growth into a healthy hatchling. The egg yolk or the “oocyte” is a single massive cell weighing about 17 ~ 20 g in an average egg and is comprised of 51–52 % water, 16–17 % protein, and 31–33 % lipids [1]. An average egg has over 5.5–6 g total lipids and is present as lipoproteins in the yolk. Among the total lipids, triacylglycerol constitute ~65 % of total lipids while phospholipids constitute ~28 % of total lipids in eggs. During the 21-day incubational period, over 88 % of triacylglycerol and 95 % of phospholipids are taken up by the growing chick embryo (Fig. 1). The rapid uptake of different lipid components by the embryo starts from the 2nd week of incubation and continues till residual yolk is completely absorbed [2, 3]. Among the different lipids taken by the chick embryo, triacylglycerol serves as a source of energy while phospholipids serve as the essential structural precursors for membrane lipid bilayers [3]. Egg phospholipids are reservoirs of long chain (>20-carbon) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3). Through the provision of energy, essential fatty acids, PUFA and other vital nutrients (e.g., amino acids, antioxidants), nutrients in hatching egg serves as the first “meal” or the “early diet” of the developing chick embryo. Defects in nutrient supply during early life may have long term impact affecting growth, health, tissue maturation, as well as immune health of the progeny chicks.Fig. 1


Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: role of lipids in early diet.

Cherian G - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Pattern of total lipid, triacylglycerol and phospholipid transfer from hatching egg to the chick embryo during incubation*. TL = Total lipid, TAG = Triacylglycerol, PL = Phospholipid, E = embryonic age. *The weight of different lipid components in yolk or in remnant yolk sac (g) from day one of incubation through hatching period. n = 8
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487977&req=5

Fig1: Pattern of total lipid, triacylglycerol and phospholipid transfer from hatching egg to the chick embryo during incubation*. TL = Total lipid, TAG = Triacylglycerol, PL = Phospholipid, E = embryonic age. *The weight of different lipid components in yolk or in remnant yolk sac (g) from day one of incubation through hatching period. n = 8
Mentions: The hatching egg is a complex structure which provides physical and nutritional milieu to the embryo to sustain its growth into a healthy hatchling. The egg yolk or the “oocyte” is a single massive cell weighing about 17 ~ 20 g in an average egg and is comprised of 51–52 % water, 16–17 % protein, and 31–33 % lipids [1]. An average egg has over 5.5–6 g total lipids and is present as lipoproteins in the yolk. Among the total lipids, triacylglycerol constitute ~65 % of total lipids while phospholipids constitute ~28 % of total lipids in eggs. During the 21-day incubational period, over 88 % of triacylglycerol and 95 % of phospholipids are taken up by the growing chick embryo (Fig. 1). The rapid uptake of different lipid components by the embryo starts from the 2nd week of incubation and continues till residual yolk is completely absorbed [2, 3]. Among the different lipids taken by the chick embryo, triacylglycerol serves as a source of energy while phospholipids serve as the essential structural precursors for membrane lipid bilayers [3]. Egg phospholipids are reservoirs of long chain (>20-carbon) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3). Through the provision of energy, essential fatty acids, PUFA and other vital nutrients (e.g., amino acids, antioxidants), nutrients in hatching egg serves as the first “meal” or the “early diet” of the developing chick embryo. Defects in nutrient supply during early life may have long term impact affecting growth, health, tissue maturation, as well as immune health of the progeny chicks.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching.Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability.In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.

ABSTRACT
Modern strains of broiler chickens are selected for fast growth and are marketed anywhere from 36 to 49 days after a 21-day incubational period. For a viable healthy chick, all the necessary nutrients required for growth and development must be provided by the hen through the fertilized egg. The current feeding strategies for improved growth, health and productivity are targeted towards chicks after hatching. Considering the fact that developing chick embryo spends over 30 % of its total life span inside the hatching egg relying on nutrients deposited by the breeder hen, investigations on nutritional needs during pre-hatch period will improve embryonic health, hatchability and chick viability. In this context, investigations on hatching egg lipid quality is of utmost importance because, during incubation, egg fat is the major source of energy and sole source of essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to the chick embryo. Due to the unique roles of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in growth, immune health, and development of central nervous system, this review will focus on the role of early exposure to essential fatty acids through maternal diet and hatching egg and its impact on progeny in meat-type broiler chickens.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus